Chapter 4 ( 4.2-1.3)
Chapter 4 ( 4.2-1.3) PSY 270
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaRinda Johnson on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Jennifer Freeland, Kray Scully in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Stages of child birth First stage Uterine contractions efface (thin) and dilate (widen) the cervix Widen about 4 inches (10 centimeters) to allow baby to pass through Longest stage First contractions not usually painful, spaced 1020 minutes apart Women advised to go to hospital or birthing center when contractions are 45min apart Woman to be prepped (pubic hair shaved) After being prepped episiotomy takes place which is a surgical incision in the area between the birth canal and anus that widens the vaginal opening to prevent tearing during child birth Given enema to prevent bowel movement during labor Fetal monitoring may be used, it is strapped around the woman’s abdomen to measure the fetal heart rate and the frequency strength and duration of the mother’s contractions Transition The cervix is almost fully dilated, the head of the fetus begins to move into the vagina or birth canal. This lasts about 30 minutes Second Stage Baby appears at the opening of the vagina Briefer than first stage May last minutes or a few hours and culminates in the birth of the baby The baby’s head has crowned when it begins to emerge from the birth canal Physician, nurse, or midwife may perform episiotomy once crowning takes place Women are unlikely to feel the incision because the pressure of the crowning head numbs the area between the vagina and anus Incision may cause itching and discomfort as it heals Many health professionals believe that the episiotomy is warranted when the baby’s shoulders are wide or the baby’s heart rate declines for a long period of time Mucus is suctioned from the baby’s mouth as soon as the head emerges from the birth canal so the baby can breathe on its own When baby is breathing adequately on its own, the umbilical cord is clamped 3 inches from the baby body Third Stage The placental stage Placenta separates from the uterus and expels through the birth canal along with the fetal membranes Bleeding is normal Uterus shrink and takes time to approximate to its pregnancy size Obstetrician sews the episiotomy (If one has been performed) Methods of Childbirth Anesthesia Used for women wont experience discomfort during childbirth Putting woman to sleep using barbiturate injected into a vein in the hand or arm Common drugs tranquilizers, oral barbiturates, and narcotics. Reduce anxiety and pain without causing sleep Negative effects on infant abnormal patterns of sleep and wakefulness and decreased attention and social responsiveness shortly after birth. The higher the dose, the greater the effect Anesthesia is regional or local Natural child birth no anesthesia used. Woman educated about reproduction and delivery and encouraged to maintain physical fitness and taught relaxation and breathing exercises. Hypnosis and Biofeedback Hypnosis help stick to diets, quit smoking, dental treatments with less discomfort Also encouraged to focus on relaxing scenes and decrease their muscle tension Biofeedback provides information about what is happening with bodily functions Also muscle tension and blood pressure are among the functions that can be targeted Prepared Childbirth Fernand Lamez discovered women had babies without anesthetics or pain Lamez method women are educated about childbirth Women engage in breathing and relaxation exercises that would lessen fear and pain if they were given something to do and distracted from discomfort Lamez classes woman taught to breathe in a specific way during contractions. Sher would be able to transfer this process of childbirth by remaining calm during contractions Cesarean Section (CSection) Abdominal surgery Cuts abdomen and uterus to remove the baby Mother encouraged to walk around the same day as the surgery, its usually painful Incision hidden on edge of woman’s pubic hair Csections are preferred when they believe the normal delivery may threaten the mother or the child. Also preferred when the baby is too large, the baby is facing in wrong direction, and to prevent circulatory systems of the mother and baby from mixing Home Birth Baby delivered at home by certified midwife Home birth represents an effort by the mother to recapture childbirth as a warm family experience Some women choose home birth because it decreases the cost of maternity care for women who have uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries