PSC 100Y NEUROSCIENCE
PSC 100Y NEUROSCIENCE PSC 100Y
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Denise Kaira Marquez on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 100Y at University of California - Davis taught by Eve Isham in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Cognitive psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
9/30/15 9:11 PM Notes to go with PSC 100Y lecture slides. These are additional notes about the pictures and info. Follow along with the lecture slides. These notes do NOT include all of the information that is already written on the lecture notes slides. It is an organized summary. ______________________________________________________________________________ Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 1-1 Parts of a neuron Input – where info is collected. The dendrites Output – through electrical impulses. Axons. Axons are coated with myelin, an insulator which makes the information travel faster. Made of fat. Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 1-2 Action potentials are all or none. They do not get smaller as they travel down the axon. When an axon splits, the action potential goes down all branches with no loss of size. Typically measure the output of a neuron as its firing rate which is the number of action potentials or spokes per second Post synaptic potential may be large or small depending on how may are active at the same time. Neurons coding the area near the dark region receive less inhibition. Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 1-3 Corpus callosum- band of axons crossing hemispheres. Connecting left and right hemispheres and allows them to communicate. Cerebral cortex: single sheet of disuse divided into two halves Thalamus-right in the center of the brain/relay station for sensory information Hippocampus: Part of the cerebral cortex that’s important for long term memory There are 4 lobes named after the bones fused together to form the skull • Frontal • Parietal • Occipital • Temporal • Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 1-4 Light must first travel through the pupil, iris, lens (THE FLIPPER), and the retina, which contains photoreceptors • The lens INVERTS the image! • When you stare at an object directly, that is the FOVEA. Think of it as the middle of the retina, the middle of your stare, the FOCUS = FOVEA. • The LEFT hemisphere codes the RIGHT visual field. That is how we get contralateral coding of information in the visual system. 9/30/15 9:11 PM Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 2-1 Three major approaches for determining the relationship between an anatomical area and a cognitive process • 1. DAMAGE-measure the cognitive process in people or animals with damage in a specific brain area • 2. STIMULATE-stimulate the area and measure the cognitive process • 3. NEURAL ACTIVITY-measure neural activity in the area while the cognitive process is engaged Lesions • 1. DAMAGED part of the brain o A major cause is disruptions in the blood supply § STOKE § Blood clots can get stuck in narrow arteries = cell death = swelling § DEAD NEURONS can NEVER be replaced, however, other parts that are not damaged in the brain may reorganize to take over the function of the part that was lost. • 2. Hippocampos: very important for memory • 3. Open/closed head injuries can also create lesions, again, damages in the brain o Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 2-2 Although there are limitations to studying such lesions, there are different approaches that help us study these damages. • 1. OVERLAP-study a group of patients with similar symptoms • 2. ARTIFICIAL- create artificial lesions in animals • 3. STIMULATION- during neurosurgery, such as those during brain tumor, can allow doctors to stimulate brain activity by showing patients pictures We devote a lot of cortical space to controlling the hand and face, more than the elbow or knee. That gives us finer abilities to control month and hand movements. LIMITATIONS during Noninvasive stimulation: • Small number of patients • Part of the brain is unhealthy • Neurosurgery is delicate Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 2-1 • EEG: Hard to see activity related to specific cognitive processes • By averaging over multiple trials, we are bale to isolate the neural activity triggered by stimulus. • ERP: Good temporal solution, but poor spatial. In other words, good at telling us WHEN not WHERE. o Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience 2-2 • Structural brain imaging: excellent spatial resolution. Used to see internal structures. • MRI: usually gives a picture of brain structure, but not what’s active • Functional brain imaging: PET: a small amount of radiation is injected into the bloodstream and into the brain & you can study the neural activity • Functional MRI: no radiation injection (that’s the advantage of this approach) o Downside: blood flow changes slowly. Takes about 6 seconds. *REMEMBER THE LAST SLIDE 9/30/15 9:11 PM