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September 30th Class Notes

by: Nadia Shibly

September 30th Class Notes Chemistry 112

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Chemistry > Chemistry 112 > September 30th Class Notes
Nadia Shibly
GPA 3.74

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Principles of Chemistry I
Sophiya V. Garashchuk
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadia Shibly on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 112 at University of Oregon taught by Sophiya V. Garashchuk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 10/01/15
September 30th 2015 Class Notes  Elements *The elements are the different types of building blocks.  *All the atoms of an element have the same atomic number.  *The atomic number is the # of protons. (same number of protons as electrons) safer to use  protons *The periodic table computes all the elements giving each element it’s own unique symbol. ex) Hydrogen= H       Carbon = C        Calcium= Ca       Chlorine= Cl        Sodium= Na (Natrium)­ latin       Gold= Aurum­ latin (Au) The periodic table lists the elements in increasing order of the atomic #.  Clicker Question #1: How many protons does an atom of the element Sulfur (S) have in it’s  Nucleus?  A. 6      B) 8      C) 16     D)  32 The Nucleus: Bookkeeping ● The atomic number (Z) is the # of protons in the nucleus which defines the  element.  ● The number of protons equals the # of electrons in a neutral atom. ● Except for in the hydrogen atom, there are at least as many neutrons as protons.  ● The mass # (A) is the # of protons and the # of neutrons  The mass # is NOT the mass of the atom, it is a #.  Remember the electrons are much lighter than the nucleus so the protons and neutrons nominate  the mass of the electron.  A Z   X    x= chemical symbol for an element  Isotopes *An isotope of a given element has a different number of neutrons.  ex) A=12, Z=6, 12                   C   Carbon­12 Most Common Isotype  Clicker Question #2 How many neutrons are there in the nucleus of 17      O  A. 8 B. 17 C. 9 D. 25 E. 0 Note on Isotypes:  ­ We won’t worry about which isotype we mention but worry more about the  element itself. ­ The chemical reactivity of isotypes of a given element is mostly the same. ­ The nuclei of some isotopes of certain elements are not stable and decay into  other elements. Not covered in this course. Physical Quantities and Significant Figures Physical Quantity ­ something we can measure  an example of a physical quantity= distance  ● 3 scales of temperatures used in this class  (Fahrenheit (degrees F) 32 degrees F = freezing point of water, 212 = boiling point Celsius  (degrees C) 0 degrees C= freezing point 100 degrees C = boiling point of water  Kelvin (K) 273.15 = freezing point of water 373.15 = boiling point of water  Temperature → Thermal heat so as the temperature decreases the atoms slow down and at absolute zero the atom stops moving. Clicker Question #3  Which is larger?  A. 1 degree C B. 1 Degree F  C. They are the same  Convert Temperature:  Temp= 9F/5C  Temp (celcius) +32        (There are 9 degrees fahrenheit for every 5 degrees celsius    and add 32 since 0 degrees celcius equals 32 degrees fahrenheit. ) Temperature in Kelvin= Temperature in degrees Celcius + 273.15  Mass Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.  Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object is proportional to its mass. Units of Mass SI Base unit = Kilograms (kg)  Other Units: lbs, grams, atomic mass Density= mass/ volume  or m                                            __                                             v Density is usually measured in grams Things float in water if it is less dense than water.  water =0.998 grams/ml ex) Diet Coke ­ 0.810lb (368g) 380.2cm^3, 23.20 in^3 density= mass/volume 368/380.2ml = 0.9679 gram/ml Diet Coke will float because it is less dense than water.     


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