PSYC 2011.11 Day 5 Notes - 9/24/15
PSYC 2011.11 Day 5 Notes - 9/24/15 PSYC 2011
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oona Intemann on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2011 at George Washington University taught by Woodruff, P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
NOTES – THURSDAY 9/24/15 Reading for this week: Chapter 5 (“Anxiety Disorders”) Classical Conditioning • The stimulus will change, but the behavior/response will stay the same • Pavlov – dogs salivating to the meat powder, salivating to the tuning fork Operant Conditioning • The environment changes so the behavior changes (the response changes0 • Ex: first time the a rat is put in a special box it does a lot of exploratory behavior o It will push a lever, get a food pellet, next time in the box it won’t explore it will go right to the food source Bandura – modeling (also called observational learning) • This is unlike the “pure behaviorists” – technology in the mind • Pure behaviorists say you can observe what goes in and what comes out but you cannot observe what is in the mind itself • With modeling something has changed o When you want to cease a behavior you can make it extinct (two ways) o Through implosion, you can work with a patient and create in the mind the thing you are afraid of § You can use a virtual reality but it must exactly mirror what the patient is concerned about o Flooding – another procedure, flooding the patient with the feared item § If you are afraid of spiders, the therapist would pick the spider up and put it on your arm • Systematic desensitization o Developed by Wolpe (South Africa) § Involves competing responses § He maintained you couldn’t be anxious and relaxed at the same time § He wanted to set up a paradigm where being relaxed would overcome the anxiety § Over and over the patient would practice this until there is a state of relaxation § Then you create a hierarchy of fear • Patient will describe what is least fearful and what is most fearful and everything in between (i.e. a picture of a snake is least fearful, the snake itself would be most fearful) • Then the patient sits in a chair, goes through the relaxation, and the therapist describes the least fearful event (i.e. a picture of a snake) • The original therapy had 12 sessions but you can have success with far fewer sessions today • Aversion Therapy o This is a form of punishment, in a way o Electric shock delivered to the shaft of a male penis if you’re working with a pedophile o Emetic (something that makes you vomit) given to alcoholics so if they drink while on this medication they projectile vomit o If it’s electric shock, that is typically court-ordered • Modeling o Learning through imitating another person § This is usually the therapist § Live modeling is the most effective § The model for children would have to be another child – must be as close to the person who needs the modeling as possible § This could help a child learn social skills Reinforcement Token Economy Teodoro Ayllon, Nathan Azrin and Leonard Krasner were big pioneers of this 1950s – mental hospital (female ward) patients of schizophrenia He set up behaviors that were considered “desirable” Each behavior was awarded points These were in the form of little plastic discs (like poker chips) of different colors When the patient conformed to the desirable behavior she got a chip They could be turned in for cigarettes, TV time, social worker visit, half day trip into town Assertiveness Training You would practice with the therapist and then do it in real life When you evaluate behavior therapy the treatment approach is very precise Quite reasonable in terms of cost It does work with a very well-defined problem, like a sexual dysfunction When the problem is less well-defined, it is not a therapy that should be used Cognitive therapy would later be developed and usually combined with behaviors What are you cognitions? Your thoughts, feelings, memories, attitudes, judgments, calculations The learner in this has to anticipation that manipulating the reinforce will help with the goal Knowing that something is ahead is the cognitive part Two important figures in the field of cognition/cognitive therapy Albert Ellis – RET (rational emotive therapy) These irrational beliefs are at the very root of our maladjustment It’s not what happens to us that upsets us but how we think about and interpret it He created the ABC sequence A is an activating experience B is a belief about what has just happened C is an emotional consequence emerges as a result of the way you’ve interpreted what’s happened The next thing that happens is you set up activities See that what you feared was not true Aaron Beck – cognitive therapy Abnormal behavior comes from irrational assumptions we have Even though you studied for the test you might say you’re going to fail He begins by having patients fill out information about themselves (basic biographical info) Once he has the info he can set up “homework” for the patient Call a friend, go to a movie, rate the experience Unlike pure behavioral therapy this is not just the activity that changes how you feel but also your thoughts about it This has been very effective Many health insurance companies try to steer patients in this direction It is very effective in alleviating depression and the various anxiety disorders Therapy usually lasts a few weeks or at most a few months Also very effective in adolescents Last of the psychological models: humanistic and existential • Both from the 1950s • Considered the “third course” because for so many decades you only had psychoanalysis and behaviorism • Carl Rogers was the person who developed this type of therapy o He wrote about it extensively with the permission of patients o He had some of the dialogue of therapy actually published • Client-centered therapy o The individual was not a patient, but a client • He said most of us strive towards some sort of maintenance of ourselves, and we do react to situations in terms of the way we perceive them – usually if we perceive a threat to ourselves we use a defense mechanism • Focused on self-development o Humanistic view: maladaptive behaviors are things that block our personal growth o The blocking can come from overuse of defense mechanisms § Unfavorable social conditions § Excessive stress § Faulty learning • Existential psychology isn’t really a philosophy o Our existence is a given but it’s up to us what we’re going to make of ourselves o Our existence is created by the choices we make o Usually we find some satisfying values and guide our life by them o What is the ultimate form of nothingness? Death § “Existentialism is the doom and gloom” o Much abnormal behavior is due to a failure to constructively deal with frustration that faces us o We have total freedom to make choices These two therapies are sometimes called experiential therapies They are focused on insight and describing what’s going on in your mind For the therapeutic methods humanistic practitioners have very specific things Beyond the patient being called a client – you have a situation of incongruence You’re looking for approval and acceptance but sometimes these don’t match up What you think about yourself is very important Basic tools: genuineness, empathy (the ability to see the world through their eyes) Even if the person has done something absolutely horrific you don’t look at the behavior, you look at the person Gestalt – “filling in the blanks” If you saw a circle with two little pointed ears and some whiskers you might be able to say that that was supposed to represent a cat You want to help clients understand their fears as well as their desires and how they block themselves from their needs He wanted the client to increase his or her awareness of unacknowledged feelings So they would do certain things to bring this out Reversal – have the patient say the things that are the opposite of how they feel § There is no fixed technique for this § Week to week, session to session, you don’t know what the therapist is going to do to you § But always this emphasis on free will § How is this so different from psychoanalysis and behaviorism? § Isn’t it very similar? Things are predetermined in you according to psychoanalysis What about looking for a therapist? Good listener, receptive, nonjudgmental would be best You need to comparison shop for therapists, too – just as you would for an object Sociocultural Model § The context in which we live § Attributes abnormal behavior to the family structure, the way the family communicates § Unhealthy communication – a husband talking to his wife via his children, etc. § Social networks and supports – who are we linked to? o Societal stress – living in a neighborhood with a high crime rate o Overcrowded housing o Cultural traditions may create difficulty o Stress from parents to do well in school o Living in a war zone, racial prejudice, famine Then there are labels that we place on people – how much they influence us David Rosenhan = controversial experiment published under the title “On Being Sane in Insane Places” § Eight volunteers § Rosenhan was one of them § They would go to 12 mental hospitals in different states § Each of the 8 volunteers said that they heard voices – “thud” “hallow” “empty” § All of them were admitted o Having auditory hallucinations is very common for schizophrenia o Each of the people gave true life histories but six of them were psychologists § Then they said they stopped hearing the voices § Hospitalized from between 7 days and 52 days § The other patients knew it was not mentally ill § They figured it was someone doing an expose or something § Every one of these people was diagnosed as “Schizophrenia in remission” § His point is once you start labeling a person then you treat them that way § The Pygmalion effect – higher expectations lead to increase in performance Sociocultural therapies have taken the therapist-client into broader situations o Group therapy o 8 to 10 patients who meet once a week for about an hour and a half o They can learn vicariously through other patients Sometimes a way when a person can’t do something this is a good way of getting things out Art therapist is very well-respected, dance therapy Music is one of the last things to disappear when you have dementia Jodi Picoult – “Sing You Home” She very accurately portrays a music therapist working with adolescents in a high school Rolfing – worse than a chiropractor Squeezing and manipulating your body (hurts a lot) Form of holistic medicine Chapter 4: Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis Clinical assessment and diagnosis o First you have an intake interview o You try to set up some good report o This does mean that there are certain situations where things like gender and race and age or ethnic group might be a factor o There are three forms the interview can take § People who are well-into their career as a therapist can do an unstructured interview § Fixed questions in a fixed order for other people § You don’t see their facial expression, body language with this – all of this can give you information § There are some designed specifically for children Clinical tests or test battery Projective tests – tap into the unconscious o Rorschach ink blot tests o Herman Rorschach o He made thousands of ink blots on paper o There are good responses and other responses, which can guide you to the right diagnosis o Sentence completion test o One for college students and then one for adults in general o “Draw a person” test o What the person looks like can help lead to a diagnosis or just a view into the unconscious mind of the person who drew it Personality inventories – most famous one is the MMPI o The original form of it and the MMPI-2 (from 1989) o Questions are in a spiral book o Scantron sheet o It has lie scales in it to try to catch people who are faking their responses o Sometimes some sort of prison sentence can be dependent on this (for criminals taking the test) Narrow Self-Report Inventory o Very narrow o Just 20 questions Death Anxiety Test – 30 questions Psychophysiological tests – very precise Measures heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension Electro encephalogram o Different from electrocardiogram CAT scan or CT scan o Measure the brain PET scan o Positron emission tomography o Measures activity in your brain The MRI – magnetic resonance imagery o Magnetic fields radio waves to map brain structures o fMRI is different – rather than showing you the structures, it will show you how the brain is working or structured
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