Chapter 5 - 7 Notes
Chapter 5 - 7 Notes 4131W
U of M
Popular in History of Graphic Design
Popular in Graphic Design
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbi Stark on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4131W at University of Minnesota taught by Barbara Martinson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see History of Graphic Design in Graphic Design at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Chapter 5 Printing Comes to Europe Xylography relief printing from a raised surface that originated in Asia Typography printing with independent, moveable, and reusable bits of metal or wood, each of which has a raised letterform on one face writing gave humanity means of storing, retrieving, and documenting knowledge and info that transcended time and place typographic printing allowed the economical and multiple production of alphabet communication Factors > Europe is a climate feasible for typography 1. Large demand for books 2. Growing literate middle class a. however, making books was expensive The value of a book was equal to the value of a farm of a vineyard 68 Samarkand papermaking center watermark translucent emblem produced by pressure from a raised design on the mold and visible when the sheet of paper is held to the light, was used in Italy by 1282 trademarks for paper mills, craftsmen, religious symbolism Early European block printing origins unknown unknown whether block book preceded typographic book playing cards first printed pieces to move into an illiterate culture, making them the earliest European manifestation of printing’s democratizing ability, intrinsic value transcends entertainment religious image prints prints of saints 69 block book used for religious instruction of illiterates (the Apocalypse, Ars Moriendi “art of dying”, Black Death, printed propaganda) 71 Difference between designer and wood carver when creating wood blocks mechanization of book production moves to Germany, Netherlands, France, Italy Procopius Waldfoghel alphabets of steel Dutchman Laurens Janszoon Coster moveable type with woodblocks Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg first brought together complex systems and subsystems necessary to print a typographic book around the year 1450, apprenticed as goldsmith, created the 42 line bible, unique alloy of 80% lead, 5% tin, 15% antimony to maintain a constant mass throughout process moveable type desirable for a system that uses letters and not a system that uses pictures for words such as Chinese writing systems 72 Gutenberg boiled linseed oil colored with lampblack and created a thick, tacky ink 73 Fust and Schoeffer stole Gutenberg’s stuff people thought someone sold their soul to the devil to create the 42 line bible wtf 77 Gutenberg eventually bankrupted but then got funded and made his own press, he was very religious, Hitler drove a lot of printers out of Europe Master of playing Cards created earliest known copperplate engravings 79 Chapter 6 The German Illustrated Book incunabula cradle or baby linen, writers adopt it as name for books printed between Gutenberg’s invention of typography in the 1450s and the end of the 15th century Some calligraphers were like gtfo but were overruled by progress! 80 Printing stabilized and unified languages nationalism spreading ideas about human rights American and French revolutions first mechanization of a skilled handicraft illiteracy decline inspired categorization and compartmentalization of information that formed the basis for empirical scientific inquiry fostered individualism more interpretations of the Bible Germany woodcut artists and typographic printers collaborated to develop illustrated book and broadsheet Incipit here begins ex libris bookplate, pasted into front of book to identify owner Origins of the illustrated typographic book Elbrecht Pfister illustrate books with woodblock prints 81 Nuremberg becomes a printing center 83 Schatzbehalter religious treatise Liber Chronicarum ambitious history of the world from biblical dawn of creation Nuremberg Chronicle 84 broadside technically a single leaf of paper printed on one side only 90 Sweynheym and Pannartz created a typographic double alphabet by combining capital letters of ancient Roman inscriptions with the rounded minuscules that had evolved in Italy from the Caroline miniscule William Caxton Recuyell of the Histories of Troy 91 Caxton printed first book in England Canterbury Tales was another one 92 Arnao Guillen de Brocar Polyglot Bible composed of correlated texts in multiple languages 97 Chapter 7 Renaissance Graphic Design renaissance revival, rebirth type design, page layout, ornaments, illustration even the total design of the book were all rethought by Italian printers and scholars Sweynheym and Pannartz set up first printing press in Italy Part of the lasting influence of Jenson’s fonts is their extreme legibility, but it was his ability to design the spaces between the letters and within each form to create an even tone throughout the page that placed the mark of genius on his work 98 The characters in Jenson’s fonts aligned more perfectly than those of any other printer of this time 99 Bernhard Maler, Peter Loselein Calendarium, solar and lunar eclipses printed in yellow and black 100 Aldus Manutius an important humanist and scholar of the Italian Renaissance 102 Manutius 1501 he addressed the need for smaller, more economical books by publishing the prototype of the pocket book Vergil’s Opera granted monopoly on Greek publishing and italic printing by the Venetian government 104 16th Century golden age of French typography Henri Estienne one of the early French scholarprinters who became enthusiastic about Aldus’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili Censorship became a problem during 1500s, church and state sought to maintain authority and control 107 pot casse trademark a symbol for the fresh currents of the French Renaissance 108 Tory most influential graphic designer of his century Champ Fleury Claude Garamond first punch cutter to work independently of printing firms, created roman typefaces, eliminated gothic styles except in Germany, established independent type foundry to sell cast type 111 Printing came to the North American colonies when a British locksmith named Stephen Daye contracted with a wealthy dissenting clergymen, Reverand Jessee Glover, to sail with him to the New World and establish a printing press. Glover died during the voyage and his widow Anne set up the printing press
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