BIOM 101 CH. 5-6 notes
BIOM 101 CH. 5-6 notes BIOM 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOM 101 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. James, Dr. Popat in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biomedical Engineering in Engineering and Tech at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
CH. 5 Main functional subunit in our body More than 200 types of cells in human body All cells have same genetic content Different sizes, shape, and properties o Liver cells have abundant enzymes for detoxification of chemicals In vitro means culturing cells outside the body In vivo means study in whole organisms Cells must solve a number of problems for survival o Catalysis o Transport o Signal transduction o Recognition o Movement o Control and differentiation o Proliferation Microenvironment around cells Microenvironment stimuli o Soluble factors o Cell-cell interactions o Cell- ECM interactions o Physical forces / cell shape Cell fate o Proliferation o Differentiation o Apoptosis o Migration Cell function o Biosynthesis / metabolism' Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic o Prokaryotes maintain shape due to rigid cell wall Gram positive bacteria: cell wall made of peptidoglycan Biochemically diverse, multiplying and adapting rapidly to environment BMEs use prokaryotes for production of recombinant proteins o Eukaryotic Cells Fungi, algae, protozoa, plants and animals Functions of plasma membrane o Transport Passive Active Exocytosis Endocytosis Pinocytosis (drinking water) Phagocytosis (eating cells and bacteria) o Surface recognition and signal transduction Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Cytoskeleton o Actin Cytoplasm (cell fluid) o Ions o Organic compounds o Amino acids o More gel-like o Cytoskeleton in cytoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o Rough ER o Smooth ER Golgi Apparatus o Proteins processed, sorted and packaged in golgi Mitochondria o Contains mitochondrial DNA Cell junctions o When cells come in contact with each other there are different types of junctions General types of tissues o Muscle tissue Specializes in movement o Nervous tissue Capable of initiating signals and transmitting them from cell to cell o Epithelial tissue Organized in sheets that cover the body surfaces Line glands to enable secretin of specialized fluids o Connective tissue Organs o Collection of 2 or more primary tissues o Stomach contains all types of tissues CH. 6 Ligands and Receptors o Molecules used for cell communication Direct cell - cell Ligands bound to surface Indirect communication Cell releases soluble, diffusible ligands o Receptor proteins On target cell surface or inside cell Bind specifically to their ligand Initiate signals inside cell "affinity" (box 6.1) Signal transduction pathway o Input Ligands Receptors o Transducer enzymes o Amplifier 2nd messengers o Output Enzymes Why do cells communicate? o Growth o Differentiation o Metabolism o Defense o Diseases due to cell communication defects Drugs enhance (agonists) or inhibit (antagonists) steps in the signal transduction pathway Secreted messengers o Autocrine Act on cells that secrete them o Paracrine Act on target cells in vicinity o Endocrine Act on distance target cells Cell surface receptors o Ligand - gated ion channels Simplest, controls ion flow o G- protein- coupled receptors (GPCRs) Activate/ inhibit enzymes Beta blockers o Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) Intrinsic catalytic activity Insulin receptor o Enzyme - linked Integrin receptors that bind ECM Cytokines in immune system Homeostasis and Defense o Nervous system Senses Integration Controls: muscles, secretion of exocrine and endocrine glands o Endocrine system Hormones are the chemical messengers Proteins or peptides that bind to surface receptors Hydrophobic steroids cross cell membrane Fight or flight Epinephrine (adrenaline) activates receptors Muscle -> fuel Heart -> rate up Eye -> dilated o Immune system Internal and external monitors Invaders Distinguishes self from non-self Disabled cells Attacks and eliminates/walls off Direct cell- cell, autocrine and paracrine signaling Pathogen immune responses Innate Adaptive Adaptive cell - mediated Cell - cell communication and BME o The FRONTIER of BME Instruments that interface directly with the nervous system Artificial retinas Brain- machine interfaces Artificial organs that respond to natural hormones Make insulin Athymic mice
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