BIOM 101 CH. 8-9 notes
BIOM 101 CH. 8-9 notes BIOM 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOM 101 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. James, Dr. Popat in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biomedical Engineering in Engineering and Tech at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
CH. 8 The circulating fluid o Plasma Water based o Red blood cells Carry respiratory gases and give it its red color because they contain hemoglobin o White blood cells Fight disease, platelets o Cell fragments which play an important role in the clotting of the blood Blood vessels o Arteries Carry oxygenated blood away from left side of heart Walls are thick and elastic Has small lumen (tubular cavities inside) Has a pulse and blood travels in spurts Has no valves o Veins Transport used blood from all over the body back to the heart and lungs for re- oxygenation Walls are thin Transports de-oxygenated blood Superior vena cava: carries blood to the heart from the upper body Inferior vena cava: carries blood from the lower body o Capillaries Very small, involved in nutrient transport Artery structure o Consists of three layers: o Tunica adventitia The strong outer covering Composed of connective tissue as well as collagen and elastic fibers o Tunica media Middle layer of the walls Composed of smooth muscle and elastic fibers Thicker in arteries than in veins o Tunica intima Inner layer In arteries this layer is composed of an elastic membrane lining and smooth endothelium that is covered by elastic tissues Capillaries o Smallest blood vessels o Single wall o Continuous capillaries are the most common Cells are joined by tight nonpermeable junctions o Fenestrated capillaries Blood flow o Actual volume of blood flowing through blood vessel o Measured in ml/min o Equivalent to cardiac output o Relatively constant at rest o Varies widely through individual organs according to the immediate needs Blood pressure o Pressure is highest in the aorta and continues to drop throughout the system, reaching zero or negative pressure at the vena cava o Systolic pressure: pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction o Diastolic pressure: pressure when the ventricles are relaxed Relation between blood flow, pressure, resistance to blood flow o Blood flow (F)= difference in blood pressure (P)/ peripheral resistance (R o Increased P -> increased flow Blood pressure near the heart o Mean arterial pressure (MAP)- the "average" blood pressure produced by the heart (93 mm Hg in healthy adult) CH. 9 Route of elimination o Exhalation: small volatile molecules that permeate membranes easily o Biotransformation: chemical conversion First order kinetics -kt o M = M dose Understanding kinetics of elimination o Vital to drug development o Safest drugs eliminated easily and predictably o Very hard to predict in vitro or in non-human animal testing Liver o Venous blood from intestine flows to liver o Immediate access to all nutrients and toxins absorbed by intestine o Processes 250-1000 mL of bile per day o Liver cells (hepatocytes) extract compounds from blood (energy consuming process) Biliary system o Organs and ducts that create and store bile and release it Kidneys o Eliminate toxins from blood o Main functional unit is the nephron o The entry point for fluid into the nephron is the glomerulus, which provides the filtration function of the kidney Nephrons o Filtration piece o Main functional unit of kidney 2-step process o 0.5M nephrons per kidney o Highly organized collection of tubes and vessels o Glomerulus (step 1) is the main entry point Filtration o Tubules Pressure drops in glomerulus o Oncotic pressure (osmotic pressure due to presence of proteins, not electrolytes like Na+ or Cl-) and hydrostatic pressure are driving force from fluid movement o Hydrostatic pressure drop Change in p gcp bs Change in p g (p gcp bs- (pgc- pbs) Inulin and other tracers o Inulin is small enough to filter easily with the plasma, but is not further managed by kidney so the clearance of inulin in the kidney = GFR Kidney summary o 25% of cardiac output goes to maintaining the high renal blood flow o Regulates excretion of salt o Renal tubules recover from ultra filtrate that are needed in the blood o Tubular epithelium have passive (ion channels) and active transporters
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