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Chapter 6 Notes

by: Brent Hawn

Chapter 6 Notes PSY 12000 - 042

Brent Hawn

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About this Document

These are one week of notes for Chapter 6 from Erin Sparks Ward. Everything is here and all answers are correct and filled in.
Elementary Psychology
Erin Sparks Ward
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brent Hawn on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 12000 - 042 at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 10/01/15
Chapter 6: 1. Be able to define “consciousness.” What is it? (lecture/book)  Consciousness- Subjective awareness of internal and external events  Everything that we are aware of at any given time (thoughts, feelings) 2. What is consciousness good for? (lecture/book)  Developing strategies for your own behavior  Think about what you want to say/do  Imagine how something in the future will turn out  Imagine what other people are thinking, predict their behavior 3. What is attention and how does it relate to consciousness? (lecture/book)  Attention- The internal processes that set priorities for mental functioning  We are only consciously aware of what we pay attention to 4. What are the typical results of a dichotic listening task? How do they demonstrate the ability to attend to things selectively? (book/lecture)  Only supposed to listen to one of the two messages being distributed to you, but repeat only one of them 5. Does our ability to attend selectively mean our brains have totally shut out all other information entirely? (lecture/book)  No 6. Know what is meant by the cocktail effect (lecture/book)  Cocktail effect- If there it is noisy in a public place, you can still focus in on the conversation that you’re involved in (selective) 7. Know how results of a dichotic listening task where message suddenly switches ears demonstrates that the brain is not actually shutting everything else out when it attends selectively (book/lecture)  The message their listening to originally follows the message to the other ear 8. Multi-tasking: Can you typically perform two tasks at once in the same amount of time as it would take to perform each of them one at a time, one right after the other? What is meant by switching time cost? (lecture)  Multi-tasking- Trying to divide your attention between multiple tasks  Time Cost- Quicker to finish one thing and then move onto the other rather than attempting to do them at the same time 9. Are self-described multi-taskers better at performing tasks that come with constant distraction? (lecture)  Recent studies showed that self-described multi-taskers performed worse on cognitive and memory tasks involving distraction than people who say they can’t/don’t prefer to multi-task 10.What is automaticity? (book/lecture)  The fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention. Not under conscious control 11.How do divided attention tasks demonstrate whether something is automatic? (lecture/book)  Divided attentions tasks are used to measure whether something is automatic. If one task fails to interfere with the other, it is not under conscious control 12.What are subliminal influences? Does the research show that the influence of subliminal messages is probably strong or weak? (book/lecture)  Subliminal Influences- Messages so hard to detect, they totally bypass conscious awareness  Research shows effects of subliminal messages are minimal or nonexistent 13.What is visual neglect? (lecture/book)  Damage to right parietal lobe of cerebral cortex produces tendency to ignore things appearing toward left side of the body 14.What is ADHD? (book/lecture)  ADHD- Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder o Trouble paying attention for long periods o Can’t finish tasks 15.Is sleep considered to be an altered state of consciousness? (lecture/book)  Yes  sleep, meditation, hypnosis, drugs 16.What is a circadian rhythm? (lecture/book)  Circadian Rhythm- Transition from sleep to waking is an example of this (affects body functions of blood pressure, heart rate, appetite, secretion of hormones) 17.Be able to describe the characteristics of the 4 stages of sleep. Know what is meant by theta waves, alpha waves, sleep spindles, and K complex. Understand what happens to the body during each of these stages (book/lecture)  Stage 1- Lightest sleep  some claim thoughts are simply drifting (theta waves begin, which are a bit lowing in amplitude and more irregular than the alpha waves experienced when you are relaxed/drowsy just prior to sleep)  Stage 2- Someone more deeply asleep (mid-sleep) brain still reacts to loud noises  Sleep spindles occur and shorts bursts of activity interrupting theta waves  Stage 3- Deep sleep  if woken up, people act confused. Delta waves 20% more synchronized slow wave/deep sleep begins  Stage 4- Deepest sleep  Delta waves reach nearly 100% 18.Know how far into sleep REM sleep typically happens, and understand the basic characteristics of REM sleep (lecture/book)  REM sleepy typically happens 70-90 minutes into sleep cycle 19.Understand the basic pattern of sleep cycles during a typical night’s sleep. How much time is typically spent in REM sleep? (lecture/book)  20-25% of nights’ sleep spent in REM sleep 20.What are some theories about the function of sleep (repairing/restoring, survival value) (lecture/book)?  Repairing and Restoring- Put body and brain functions “back in order”, repair disorganized circuits, restore depleted resources, and consolidate learning/memory  Survival Value- We aren’t efficient at night 21.What happens when people are sleep deprived? (lecture/book)  Difficulty concentrating  General irritability  Decreases cognitive functioning  Impairs learning  Long-term health effects  Technically could be fatal  Cause many accidents and fatalities 22.What is REM rebound? (book/lecture)  Takes place after a period of REM sleep deprivation o Intensity and length of REM sleep increases o Often associated with unpleasant dreams or nightmares 23.About how much sleep do people need each night? (book/lecture)  Humans need about 8 hours of sleep each night 24.What are the differences between REM dreams, non REM dreams (lecture/book), and Lucid dreams (just lecture)?  REM Dreams- Continually dreaming during REM sleep  story like qualities  Non REM Dreams- Less frequent than REM dreams  less memorable  Lucid Dreams- A dream where individual is aware of dreaming and whose content the individual is often able to influence while dreaming 25.Know the 4 reasons why psychologists think we might dream (lecture/book). Be able to identify examples of each. 1. Wish fulfillment (to satisfy forbidden urges/desires) 2. Activation-Synthesis- dreaming in consequence of random activity in brain. Cells in hindbrain activate higher center of brain during REM sleep. Brain creates story to make sense of signals it receives. 3. Problem-Focused Dream-Interpretation (dreams are for solving problems) 4. Dealing with threats- Evolutionary psych  dreams are to practice dealing with threat 26.Are people certain of which theory of dreaming is correct? (book/lecture)  No, the true theory is unknown 27.Specifically, for Freud’s theory of wish fulfillment, make sure you know what is meant by latent content and manifest content (lecture/book). Be able to identify examples of Freud’s idea of dream interpretation.  Latent Content- The underlying meaning of the dream  Manifest Content- The content of a dream recalled by the dreamer 28.Know what is meant by dyssomnia and parasomnia (lecture/book)  Dyssomnias- Problems connected with the amount, timing, and quality of sleep  Parasomnias- Disturbances during sleep 29.Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following dyssomnias: insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy. (lecture/book)  Insomnia- Difficulty starting or maintaining sleep  has to be chronic  Hyperinsomnia- Too much sleep  feel tired all of the time  Narcolepsy- Sudden extreme sleepiness  enter REM directly 30.Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following parasomnias: Sleepwalking, night terrors, nightmares (lecture/book), and sleep talking (just lecture).  Sleep walking (Somnambulism)- Occurs during partial arousal from stage 4 sleep  Night terrors- Happens during partial arousal from stage 4 sleep  usually begins with a piercing scream  Nightmares- Particularly frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep  Sleep talking- Occurs during any sleep stage 31.What are psychoactive drugs and why do people take them? (lecture/book)  Psychoactive drugs- Any substance that affects behavior and mental processes through alterations of conscious awareness o Relieve pain/discomfort o After consciousness o Psychological escape o Recreation/Fun 32.What are depressants? What do depressants do in low and high doses, and what are some examples of depressants? (lecture/book)  Depressants- Slow down the CNS, inhibit neural activity (calm, drowsy, reduced anxiety) o High levels- insensitivity to pain and other senses o Overdose- Irregular heartbeat, death  Alcohol, valium, xanax 33.What are stimulants? What do stimulants do in low and high doses, and what are some examples of stimulants? (lecture/book)  Stimulants- Speed up central nervous system (excited, confident, euphoric) o High levels- anxious, jittery, hyper o Overdose- convulsions, heart failure, death  Caffeine, meth, cocaine, speed, crack 34.What are opiates? What are some examples of opiates? (lecture/book)  Opiates- Pain relievers o Opium, heroine, methadone 35.What are hallucinogens? What are some examples of hallucinogens? (lecture/book)  Hallucinogens- Disrupt normal thought process o LSD, mushrooms, peyote 36.What is hypnosis? Is hypnosis the same as sleep? Are “weak minded” people more easily hypnotized? What are the two theories that explain heightened suggestibility (dissociation and role playing)? (book)  Hypnosis- Induced altered consciousness  state of deep reaction o Theories- Dissociation – (a splitting of conscious awareness) Social Role- acting out suggestions) 37.What is meditation? What are some benefits of meditation? (book)  Meditation- Induced altered consciousness  state of alert-relaxation o Improves immune system, lowers BP and cholesterol, and creates feeling of well being


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