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Lecture 9.30.15

by: Iliana Elias

Lecture 9.30.15 BIO 106 - M001

Iliana Elias
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

This lecture was very dense, but I tried to get as much as I could (including things that weren't included on the slides on Blackboard).
Ocean Life
S. Parks
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 10/01/15
MARINE MICROBIOLOGY Microbiology - Study of microbes and their interactions with humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Frontier of biology right now. Poll: which of the following can be microbes? *Viruses, Bacteria, Plants, Animals Microbial life  found in three major domains (bacteria, archaea, eukaryote)  defined by size, not phylogeny Marine Microbes  in order to be considered a microbe, needs to be smaller than nano- plankton  Important because… o Responsible for most of the oxygen in the air o Microorganisms make up more than 90% of the biomass in the sea o Critical to ocean health and productivity o Marine viruses can cause epidemics in marine species o A lot of drugs are derived from marine species Microbes in the ocean  Single celled organisms o Bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes  Viruses  Very few identified Bacteria  Prokaryotes  DNA isn’t in the nucleus  Absorb dissolved organic matter through their cell wall Cyanobacteria o Photosynthetic o Blue-green algae o One of the most diverse group of bacteria o Created the earth’s oxygen atmosphere o Can see from space if in large groups o Stromatolites  Sedimentary rocks formed by layers of cyanobacteria  Oldest known fossilized life form (3.5 billion years old)  Still living in Shark Bay Australia Archaea  Discovered in the 1970’s  Between bacteria and eukaryotes  DNA not in nucleus  Cell membranes more like eukaryotes  Make up 40% of biodiversity in the deep sea  Organisms that grow in extreme environments MARINE MICROBIOLOGY  Grow everywhere in both normal and extreme environments  Symbiotic organisms o Live inside other organisms o Breaks down waste products from the organism to make its food Eukaryotes  Protists – one-celled organisms  2-200 microns  DNA inside a membrane bound nucleus  Many make their own food (autotrophs)  Major producers in the ocean Marine Viruses  Most abundant in the ocean  Must infect other cells to reproduce, replicate inside the cell of another organism, can’t reproduce on their own Biomass – total mass of organisms in a given area or volume  Most are unknown  Microbial biomass is 10k more than the biomass of the humans and plants on the planet Biological ‘Pump’  1-40% of the productivity from the Euphotic zone reaches down to the dark ocean  important for recycling organic carbon Marine viruses outbreaks  affect small to large organisms  can cause disease outbreaks  white plague – affecting coral  Morbillivirus o Measles o Infect the lungs and brains of marine mammals o Often are thin, with skin lesions o Very prominent in dolphins  Coral suffer a lot from microbial diseases o White plague – looks like a white band o Causes rapid tissue loss o Results in partial or total mortality in the colony o Viral infection  Marine pharmacology o Microorganisms contribute to drugs o Produce chemicals beneficial to human health


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