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chem notes sept 29, oct 1

by: Karlee Castleberry

chem notes sept 29, oct 1 CHEM 1030 - 003

Marketplace > Auburn University > Chemistry > CHEM 1030 - 003 > chem notes sept 29 oct 1
Karlee Castleberry
GPA 3.1

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Here are the lecture notes for Dr. Gorden's class from the week of September 29th and October 1st! It consists of the rest of chapter 4, and the beginning of chapter 5! :) - Karlee
Fundamentals Chemistry I
John D Gorden
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karlee Castleberry on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 - 003 at Auburn University taught by John D Gorden in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/01/15
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Chapter 4 (cont.), Chapter 5 4.5 - Electron Configurations of Ions - Write configuration for Na: • 1s 2s 2p 3s 1 - Add or remove the appropriate number of electrons • Na: 1s 2s 2p 3s —> Na+: 1s 2s 2p (10 electrons total, isoelectronic with Ne) 2 2 6 1 5 - 2 2 6 2 6 • Cl: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p —> Cl :1s 2s 2p 3s 3p (add electron)(18 electrons, isoelectronic with Ar) - ions of main group elements isoelectronic- species with identical electron configurations to the noble gas to the • right (also, same number of electrons) • elements on opposite sides tend to be ionic, vice versa - ions of d-block elements • formed by removing electrons from shell with highest n - for Fe to form Fe2+, 2 electrons are lost from the 4s subtle not the 3d • Fe: [Ar]4s 3d —> Fe : [Ar]3d 6 or Fe : [Ar]3d 5 4.6 Ionic Radius - The ionic radius is the radius of a cation or an anion • when an atom becomes a cation, its radius decreases • a significant decrease in radius happens when all valence electrons are taken away 5.1 Compounds - *no such thing as an ionic bond - compound: substance composed of 2 or more elements 1 Tuesday, September 29, 2015 • held together by chemical bonds • combined in specific ratio • ex: water and salt (sodium chloride) 5.2 Lewis Dot Symbols - consists of the element’s symbol with dots • when atoms form compounds, it’s their valence electrons that interact • each dots represents a valence electron • ions may also be represented by Lewis dot symbols 5.3 Ionic Compounds and Bonding - Ionic bonding refers to the electrostatic attraction that holds oppositely charged ions together in an ionic compound - the chemical formula of an ionic compound denotes the constituent elements and the ratio in which they combine - a 3D array of oppositely charged ions is called a lattice. lattice energy is the amount of energy required to convert a mole of ionic solid to its constituent ions • the formation of ionic bonds releases a large amount of energy • the magnitude of lattice energy is a measure of an ionic compound’s stability 5.4 Naming ions and ionic compounds - a monatomic cation is named by adding ion to the name of the element • K+ is potassium ion - the monatomic anion changing end of element’s name to -ide • Cl- is chloride O2- is oxide - some metals can form cations of more than 1 possible charge 2 Tuesday, September 29, 2015 • Fe2+ : ferrous ion [Fe (II) ion] - Ionic compounds are electronically neutral • sum of charges on cation and anion must be zero - Al3+ & O 2- - sum of charges 2(+3) + 3(-2) = 0 • left positive, right negative • metal and nonmetal = ionic - naming ionic compounds • name cation - omit the word ion - use roman numeral if the cation can have 1+ charge • name anion - omit the word ion • ex: NaBr - sodium bromide - FeCl 2 iron (II) chloride or iron dichloride 5.5 covalent bonding and molecules - compounds between elements with similar properties don’t transfer electrons, but they share them - this approach is lewis theory of bonding • H2 H• + •H = H••H - molecule- combo of at least 2 atoms bonded chemically • element or compound - law of definite proportions: diff samples of a given compound always contain the same elements in the same ration - molecular formulas 3 Tuesday, September 29, 2015 • a chemical formula denotes the composition of the substance • a molecular formula shows exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule • some elements have 2+ distinct forms known as allotropes - ex: oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) are allotropes of oxygen • a structural formula shows not only the elemental composition, but also the general arrangements - Empirical formulas: • whole number ratio of elements • empirical gives us the simplest formula - molecular N H42 - empirical NH2 - * know table 5.4 5.6 Naming molecular compounds - binary molecular compounds- substances with just 2 different elements - nomenclature: • name 1st element that appears in formula • name 2nd element, changing its ending to -ide - ex: HCl hydrogen chloride - greek prefixes used to denote number of atoms of each element present • mono - 1 • di - 2 • tri - 3 … • hepta - 7 • octa - 8 nona - 9 • 4 Tuesday, September 29, 2015 • deca - 10 • thing thats most electronegative will always be to the right** • the thing with greatest effective nuclear charge - compounds containing hydrogen • acid - substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water • HCl - ex of binary compound that is an acid when dissolved in water to name these acids… • - remove -gen from hydrogen - change -ide on second element to -ic - organic compounds • inorganic - those without carbon • contain carbon and hydrogen, sometimes in combo with other atoms • hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen - simplest are called alkanes 5


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