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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Notetaker on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 121 at Missouri State University taught by Manley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Consciousness Awareness of everything going on inside and outside of you Waking: o Thoughts, feelings, sensations are clear Altered State o shift in quality or pattern of mental activity sleeping, drugs, mediation, hypnosis, automatic processing Altered States: sleep circadian rhythm o lasts 24 hour Suprachiasmatic nucleus o Sensitive to changes in light As the daylight fades the SCN tells the pineal gland to secrete melatonin As light coming into the eyes increases, SCN tells pineal gland to stop secreting melatonin o Internal clock that tells people when to wake up or fall asleep Why we sleep Adaptive theory: o Animals evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active Restorative theory: o Sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage Sleep patterns of infants and adults Need less sleep as you age As you age you can operate on less sleep Nearly 50% of infants sleep is REM, compared to 20% of adults Stages of sleep: Changes in Brain-Wave activity Beat waves o 13-30hz, smaller/faster waves o Person is wide awake and mentally active Alpha waves o 8-12hz, larger/slower waves o Person is relaxed or drowsy Theta waves o 4-7hz, larger/slower waves o Person is entering light sleep Delta waves o .5-3.5hz, largest/slowest waves o Person is in deepest stage of sleep Stages of sleep: Non-REM Stage 1: o Theta waves; light sleep; hypnic jerk; hypnagogic images Stage 2: o Temperature decreases, breathing and heart rate decreases; sleep spindles Stage 3 and 4: o Delta waves; growth hormones released; hard to wake up *difference in 3 and 4: stage 3 has some theta waves and delta waves, as 4 has strictly delta waves Stages of sleep: REM (rapid eye movement) Eyes moving under eyelids, rest of body is still 90% of dreaming occurs in this stage Person is asleep but EEG is similar to that of an awake individual o REM sleep is sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep From stage 1 to REM, then from REM to stage 1 EEG during sleep The averagendength of stage thsleep cycle is 90 minutes From the 2 stage to the 4 stage is 100-120 minutes The stage of sleep you wake up in, in the morning has consequences for how groggy you feel Sleep Disorders Bad dreams arousing feelings of horror, helplessness, extreme sorrow, etc. Occur during REM REM behavior disorder is a rare disorder in which the mechanism that n=blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares Sleepwalking Moving or walking around during deep sleep Occur in stage 3 and 4 Night Terrors Attacks of extreme fear that the victim has while sound asleep More common in children o Often sit up, run, scream, thrash around Usually during stage 3 or 4 o Hard to wake person up and they typically do not remember Sleep disorders Insomnia: o o Inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get good quality sleep Narcolepsy: o Person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning Sleep apnea: o Person stops breathing for half a minute or more Dreams (Freud) dreams as wish fulfillment manifest content and latent content o manifest- actual dream and its events o latent- symbolic content Dreams another king of thinking that occurs when people sleep o higher centers of the cortex create a “story” to explain the cortical activation coming from the brain stem during REM activation-synthesis hypothesis- without outside sensory information to explain the activation of the brain cells in the cortex by the pons area, the association areas of the cortex synthesize a story, or dream, to explain that activation activation-information mode model (AIM)- states that information experienced during waking hours can influence the synthesis of dreams The influence of psychoactive drugs Psychoactive drugs drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory Physical dependence: o Person’s body becomes unable to function normally without drug o Withdrawal o Tolerance Negative reinforcement Psychological dependence: o Feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being Positive reinforcement Major Drug Categories: Stimulants o Drugs that increase the activity of the nervous system o Include Amphetamines Cocaine Nicotine caffeine Depressants o Decrease the functioning of the nervous system o Include Barbiturates (major tranquilizers) Sleeping pills Benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers) Xanax Alcohol o Depressant (Narcotics) Class of opium-related drugs that suppress pain and mimic endorphins Include Opium Morphine Heroine methadone Hallucinogens o Cause false sensory message, altering the perception of reality o Include: LSD PCP MDMA (ecstasy) Marijuana Sensation- a process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energy Perception- a process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Sensation Activation of receptors in the eyes, skin nasal cavities, and tongue Sensory receptors are special forms of neurons that are activated by light and sound Absolute threshold- smallest amount of energy needed for conscious detection of a stimulus at least half the time Just noticeable difference- the point at which a stimulus is detectable half the time it is present Weber’s Law of just noticeable differences states that the just noticeable difference between two stimuli is always a constant Examples of Absolute Threshold: o Vision: a candle flam at 30 miles on a clear, dark night o Hearing: the tick of a watch 20 feet away in a quiet room o Smell: one drop of perfume diffused throughout a 3-room apartment o Taste: 1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water o Touch: a bee’s wing falling on the cheek from 1 centimeter above Habituation and Sensory Adaption Habituation- brain stops attending to constant, unchanging stimuli Sensory Adaption- sensory receptors less responsive to constant stimuli The Science of Seeing Structure of the eye: Light enters the eye through the cornea and pupil The iris controls the size of the pupil Light passes to the retina, where it is transformed into nerve impulses The nerve impulses travel to the brain along the optic nerve Cornea- bends light waves so the image can be focused on the retina Iris- muscles that control the size of the pupil Pupil- iris opening that changes size depending on light Lens-changes shape to bring object into focus Retina- contains photoreceptor cells Optic nerve-sends visual information to the brain Blind spot- point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, no receptor cells Cones are located in the fovea o Day vision (color) Rods are located in the periphery o Night vision (black and white) Trichromatic Theory Theory of color perception assumes 3 types of cones: o Red, green, and blue o Arranged in pairs o When one member of a pair is activated, the other isn’t The Hearing Sense Structure of the ear: Sound enters the ear through the visible outer structure, or pinna Travels to the eardrum Then to the small bones of the middle of the ear o Anvil, hammer, stirrup Causes the cochlea and basilar membrane to vibrate with sound Chemical Senses Taste Gustation is the sense of taste 5 basic tastes o Salty o Sour o Bitter o Sweet o Umami (brothy) Smell (olfaction) The olfactory receptors in the upper part of the nasal passages receive molecules of substances and create neural signals that then go to the olfactory bulbs under the frontal lobes Nerve fibers inside the nasal cavity carry information about smell directly to the olfactory bulb Smells the only sense that doesn’t travel through the thalamus The tiny hair like structures, cilia, are the receptors of the sense of smell Somesthetic Senses: What the body knows Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses Kinesthetic- allows the brain to know the position and movement of the body through the activity of special receptors responsible for the movement of the joints and limbs Vestibular- contributes to the body’s senses of spatial orientation and movement through the activity of the otolith organs (up-and-down movement) and the semicircular canals (movement through arcs) Perception Method by which sensations are organized and interpreted Sensation Bottom-up processing o Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information Top-down processing o Information processing guided by high-level mental processes o As when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations The Gestalt Principles These principles are based on the idea that people have a natural tendency to force patterns onto whatever they see Figure and ground o Organization of the visual field onto objects that stand out from the surroundings Proximity o The tendency to perceive objects that are close to one another as part of the same grouping Similarity o The tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group Closure o The tendency to complete figures that are incomplete Depth Perception The ability to perceive the world in 3D o Monocular and binocular Monocular Cues: o Depth cues that can be perceived by one eye alone Interposition The assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer Liner perspective The tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other Relative size Perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away Texture gradient The tendency for textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and finer as distance from the viewer increases Aerial perspective the haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as greater Motion parallax The perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away Binocular depth cues: o Cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes Convergence: Involves the muscles of the eye When objects are far away, the eye muscles are more relaxed; when objects are close, the eye muscles move together (converge) Binocular disparity: Your eyes are separated by several centimeters, each eye sees a slightly different image of the object in front of you Perceptional Organization-depth perception: Visual Cliff Learning Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice and is different from maturation, which is genetically controlled Classical Conditioning Pavlov accidently discovered classical conditioning o The phenomenon in which one stimulus can, through paring with another stimulus, come to produce a similar response Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Russian Physiologist Classical conditioning Reflexes, stimuli, and response Elements of Classical Conditioning The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is the stimulus that is naturally occurring and produces the reflex, or involuntary unconditioned response (UCR) o Both are called “unconditioned” because they aren’t learned The Conditioned stimulus (CS) begins as a neutral stimulus, but when paired with the unconditioned stimulus eventually begins to elicit the reflex on its own o The reflex response to the conditioned stimulus is called the “conditioned response” (CR), and both stimulus and response are learned ** NS becomes the CS UCS UCR NS UCS UCR CS CR Principles for the Classical Conditioning: The NS and the UCS must be paired several times The NS/CS must come before the UCS The UCS most come only a few seconds after the NS/CS Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Discrimination- the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that’s similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Emotional Responses Emotional responses that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli Watson was able to demonstrate that an emotional disorder called a phobia could be learned through classical conditioning by exposing a baby to a white rat and a loud noise, producing conditioned fear of the rat in the baby Conditioned taste aversion: Development of a nausea/aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association Operant Conditioning *B.F. Skinner named the B.F. Skinner 1904-1990 Studied observable, measurable behavior Operant: voluntary behavior Learning depends on consequences learning of voluntary responses “operant conditioning” because voluntary responses are what we use to operate in the world around us Reinforcement Any consequence that makes a response more likely o Thorndike’s law of effect: Responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated Primary Reinforcer o Reinforcer meeting a basic biological need/drive Secondary reinforce o Reinforcing via pairing with a primary reinforcer Positive: o Addition of a pleasurable stimulus Negative: o Removable, escape, or avoidance of aversive stimulus Schedules of Reinforcement: Fixed ratio: based on a certain number of responses Variable ratio: based on number of responses, number varies Fixed interval: based on a certain fixed amount of time Variable interval: based on a variable amount of time Continuous reinforcement occurs when each and every correct response is followed by a reinforcer Partial reinforcement, in which some correct responses are followed by reinforcement, is much more resistant to extinction o Ratio- number o Interval- time o Fixed- consistent o Variable- changes Punishment Any consequence that makes a response less likely It’s about decreasing the behavior Positive (adding) reinforcement- something valued/desirable o Example: getting a gold star for good behavior in school Positive punishment- something unpleasant o Example: getting a spanking for disobeying Negative (removing) reinforcement- something unpleasant o Example: avoiding a ticket by stopping at a red light Negative punishment- something valued/desirable o Example: losing a privilege such as going out with friends Types: Application- addition of unpleasant stimulus Removal- removal of pleasurable stimulus o In punishment by application, a response is followed by the application of experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus, such as spanking o In punishment by removal, a response is followed by the removal of some pleasurable stimulus, such as taking a child’s toy for misbehavior Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment by Removal Negative reinforcement (reinforcement is about increasing behavior) occurs when a response is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus Punishment by removal (punishment is about decreasing behavior) occurs when a pleasant thing is removed Punishment Problems Fear and anxiety Lying Avoidance Modeling of aggression Punishment should be: Immediate Consistent paired with reinforcement for correct behavior Skinner box chamber with a bar/key that an animal manipulates to obtain food/water reinforce contains devices to record responses Behavior Modification the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about the desired changes in behavior includes the use of reinforcement and shaping to alter behavior Techniques token economy- type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens applied behavior analysis- modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response Cognitive Learning Theory early days of learning: o focus on behavior 1950’s and 1960’s: o Increased focus on mental events (cognition) Edward Tolman: o Early cognitive scientist Tolman’s Rates and Latent Learning Tolman found that rats were allowed to wander in a maze but were not reinforced still showed evidence of having learned the maze once reinforcement became possible He termed this hidden learning latent learning Insight Learning Kohler found evidence of insight in chimpanzees Insight- the sudden perception of the relationship among elements of a problem Learned helplessness: (Seligman) Tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures Observational Learning Acquired by watching other perform, or model, certain actions Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Two Conditions: o Aggressive and non-aggressive model This experiment demonstrated that young children will imitate the aggressive actions of a model even when there’s no reinforcement for doing so The 4 elements of observational learning: 1. Attention 2. Memory 3. Imitation 4. Desire (AMID)