BioNotes- Week of Sept 28
BioNotes- Week of Sept 28 BIOL 160 - 018
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BIOL 160 - 018
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Emery on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 160 - 018 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by John W Koontz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
929 Redox Reaction Reduced gaining an electron o This molecule has higher potential energy Oxidized losing an electron o This molecule has lower potential energy The molecule that receives the electron is the reducing agents The molecule that donates the electron in the oxidizing agent They always come in pairs Metabolism Glucose can be metabolized without oxygen through fermentation The carbons in glucose start as CHZO and end as C02 The electron transferred during redox is usually accompanied by a proton Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD is reduced to form NADH o NADH easily donates electrons and is known as an quotelectron carrierquot and has quotreducing powerquot All the endergonic reactions in a cell are paired with exergonic reactions in reaction coupling Respiration Most steps occur in mitochondria o Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm 0 Two in outermembrane 0 One in inner matrix 0 Steps 0 Glycolysis 10 chemical reactions all needed enzymes are n the cytosol Glucose is broken down into two 3carbon molecules called pyruvate and potential energy released in used to change ADP to ATP Parts 0 Energy investment phase 0 Energy payoff phase 0 Pyruvate processing 0 0 ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Three phosphate groups ribose adenine 0 Alpha beta gamma phosphates moving outwards Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed o Exergonic reaction 0 4 negative charges high potential energy 101 Citric Acid Cycle Third step of glucose oxidation The CoA produced in pyruvate processing enter the CAC Each acetyl CoA oxidizes into two molecules of C02 Some potential energy is released to 0 Reduce NAD to NADH 0 Reduce FAD to FADH2 an electron carrier 0 Phosphorylate GDP to GTP later converted into ATP Substrates 0 Series of carboxylic acids is oxidized and recycled in the CAC o Citrate rst molecule in the cycle is formed from pyruvate and oxaoacetate last molecule in the cycle Each glucose molecule that is oxidized to 6 C02 molecules 0 10 NAD to NADH o 2 FAD to FADH2 o 4 ATP via substrate level phosphorylation ATP can be directly used for cellular work Most of glucose s original energy in contained in the electrons transferred from NADH to FADH2 which take them to Oxygen Electron Transport Chain ETC Fourth step in respiration Energy released as electrons move through ETC used to pump protons across inner membrane into intermembrane space 0 Makes electrochemical gradient Most ETC molecules are embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane 0 Only one isn t which is it o Coenzyme Q lipid biayer ETC proteins organized into more mulitprotein complexes and cofactors Protons are pumped into intermembrane space from mitochondrial matrix by complexes I III and IV Q and cytochrome C transfer electrons between complexes Q also carries protons across the membrane Chemiosmostic Hypothesis Bacteriorhopdopsin acts as a proton pump 0 captures light energy 0 used to move protons across membrane out of the cell 0 proton gradient created is converted into chemical energy ATP ATP Synthase Enzyme complex with two components 0 ATPase knob F1 Unit 0 Membrane bound proton transporting base F0 Unit Connected by a rotor spins F1
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