Lecture 8 & 9
Lecture 8 & 9 MSCI 311
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Lecture 8 Gas Exchange Invertebrates Quizes Marine invertebrates commonly respire across the gills tentacles and the entire body wall Echinoderms polychaete annelids and urechis caupo all have outpocketings or invaginations as respiratory structures Polychaete annelids parapodia uses legs so it is highly vasculized Urcheis caupo has anal sacks Relative ATP production for glycolysis krebs and electron transport much more ATP in electron transport and 2 for each of the others We know a single molecule fatty acids will produce more atp than a single molecule of glucose Glucose starts at beginning starts at glycolysis and fatty acids start in krebs cycle NO BAR for fatty in glycolysis small for glucose two small for krebs and big bars for electron transport but fatty higher Gills increase surface area for gas exchange Do NOT allow for more ef cient cellular respiration or reduce effort involved in gas exchange This is because they do not actively breathe like we do organisms that have gills mostly don39t actively pass water over gills most sit in water column and wait for water to flow so not active because no effort was involved Ocean acidi cation impacts oyster growth by decreasing reproduction overall due to the calcium carbonate shell dissolving causing the organism to put in more energy towards maintaining its shell and living and not much is left over for reproduction How does the process of cellular respiration digestion and organisma respiration all related 0 the byproducts of one go into the nextgteat food that can be broken down digesting but only by using oxygen taken in by respiration Breathingrespiration gives oxygen needed to break down food by digestion Respiration Physiological process by which oxygen moves into internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out Oxygen is needed for aerobic respiration Carbon dioxide is produced by same Byproduct is C02 evolves in concert with circulatory system because systems cant evolve without the other Acts with circulatory system to deliver oxygen and remove carbon dioxidealso regulates acidbase balance Oxygen in the ocean vs atmospheric oxygen Relatively constant throughout the ocean usually 46 ppm below is hypoptic conditions Vertically there is a difference saturation of oxygen in the shallow watersdue to gas exchange with the atmosphere on the surface because it is in contact causing constant diffusion Why does it increase again at depthcold water holds more gas AND depth is colder so deep down is more saturation because it can hold more Middle layeroxygen minimum zone it is not as cold as the deep waters and therefore cant hold as much oxygen AND the organisms live here eating and using up oxygen in respiratory process Carbon dioxide 13land and plants 13 water 13 atmosphere 0 part that goes into ocean leads to ocean acidi cation on the right of the table is the predicted levels Carbon goes into ocean and becomes aquous and binds with water to make carbonic acid giving up a proton to become bicarbonate and eventually carbonate Were getting less and less of carbonates because it dissolves More acidity lower pH and more input in bicarbonate phase Respiration is fairly easy except 0 oxygen minimum zoneduring daily migration for feeding could cause stress Active swimmers can have tissues go anoxic but for most animals running out of oxygen is not a big issue Pressure 0 how does a gas exert force 0 Gas molecules are moving all over as as doing so bang into each other and the collision of the movement creates the pressure Increasing gas molecules increases collision and then pressure gasses in general aren t pure Main gas Nitrogen 79 Oxygen is 21 Take pressure given by that speci c gas gives partial pressure and total is all partials combined Atmospheric Pressure 0 determine the partial pressure of oxygen Total atmosphericoxy abundance 7602110016O mmHggtpartial pressure of oxygen Gravity isn t pulling as hard above sea level so pressure wont be as high Partial Pressure Gradients taking a deep breath and increase lung area lower partial pressure of oxygen compared to oxygen outside and air will ow from higher concentration outside to lower inside Oxygen ows down pressure gradient into body and carbon dioxide ows down its gradient too but against oxygen s out of the body Ficks Law In uence diffusion of gas 1 bigger the area more gas can diffuse across proportional to surface area 2 increase gradient between partial pressures of two locations gas will diffuse more effectively hold breath gas is all used up and suck in as much as you can and gasses will ow very quick because steeper gradient caused 3 thicker the area that diffusion has to happen the slower it will proceed inversely proportional to distance over which diffusion takes place What adaptations Will not ca use an organism to increase respiration decrease difference in partial pressure across membrane Boundary layer 0 measure velocity of water moving past you while getting closer and closer to you Strength of the ow closer to you velocity slows down until RIGHT next to you adjacent there is NO FLOW AT ALLNO SLIP CONDITION pollen not blowing off car because slip effects of ow speed on respirationgt want to elevate selves over substrate that they are living on to minimize boundary layer to get up into ow this is decreasing thickness or distance over which diffusion has to take place and there for by cks law more ef cient by doing so Stronger the ow initially more compressed boundary layer is but slow flow means oxygen is not being replenished in a fast enough manner which organisms are eating up Boundary layer water has fairly low oxygen concentrations 0 much more oxygen in air so much have large respiratory surface What happens to surface area to volume ration as the diameter of an object increases It decreases because surface area and volume increase but volume increases way faster Surfacetovolume ratio 0 as animal size increases surface to volume ration decreases small animals can use body surface as respiratory surface Flat organisms because big ratio 0 as get bigger must change shape to maintain surface area to volume area Minimizing volume inside them to surface area to allow to grow big while having enough surface area to tend to oxygen demands 0 As volume increase oxygen demand increases as well and surface area cant keep up then a structure will form GILLS some don t use this and use internal respiratory systems key is moisture gases can only be dissolved when moist Respiration cant happen without moisture Invertebrate Respiration Cnidarians Manowar diffuse across body wallgtnot respiratory structure but oating structure Gills common way to increase SA to volume ratio Parapodia legs on worm lots of blood vesselshighly vascularized Echiura Blood vascular systemhind gut respiration Live in burrow and pumps water through burrow Respire using anal sac cloaca used for reproduction and waste coming off have sacs breath through anus and puts into sacs and diffuses throughout body Echinoderms Dermal branchii papillae for gas exchange increase surface area 0 Feet on bottom used for gas exchange Skeleton and dermal branchii Papullae extended for respiration drawn in for protection Respiratory trees 0 Major cucumber respiratory organs Evaginations of the cloaca into the perivisceral coelom Muscles generate a tidal flow of oxygenated seawater in and out 0 ANAL BREATH ERS Molluscs Chitons gis extend length of body on both sides water passes in from sides across gills and out posteriorly ifts side up and water ows across gilss max gills with keeping them long so ratio stays constant Molluscs abaloneright and left gills in through anterior holes and out trhough posterior holes Snailsingle gill that is folded to create greater contact between water and gill greater diffusion Water passes over the gills as it circulates through the mantle cavity Bivalveincrease surface area as much as possible but use as feeding structure mucus on gill captures particles through water to eat while also pulling in the oxygen from this water Very large paired gills fold back on self many times used in respiration and feeding Cephalopodsvery large paired gills muscle generated movement of water across gills and gas exchange across the body wall as well Nudibranchdon t use the extruding spines for respiration but for protection Pulmonates land snaihave internal lung with a hole on the side of its head to pull air in Arthropod gills take up bqu of internal structure of organism for respiration Gas exchange in crabs Gills that are attached to base of walking leg bene t motion As walks moves gill back and forth which is decreasing distance which gas has to diffuseas moves gill through water decreases thickness of the boundary layer Intertidal organisms on beach have to deal with availability of oxygen changing whether submerged or not but changes indirectly to the risk of desiccation Behavioral adaptations close valves to avoid desiccation but keep cracked to allow gas exchange Increased vascularization withstand great water loss anaerobic respiration brie y Oxyconformers only change metabolic rate not a lot 02 available reduce metabolic rate in consistently oxygenated areas oxyregulators change ventilation rate change heart function respiratory pigmentsswitching between pigments and temporary oxygen stores found in variably oxygenated areas Organism in sand vs mud which will have the most oxygen stressgtmost stress would be the mud because smaller sediment grains the more surface area per unit volume for organic particles to be held in instead of washed away and also broken down by bacteria and used Anoxic compared to sandy More aeration in sand too The quotother C02 problemquot the acid test putting coZ in atmosphere from industrial activity 13 into ocean and because of association with bicarbonate and carbonate releases protons increasing the acidity of the water impacts calcium carbonate shell chalk will dissolve oyster mussel clam crab animals use lots of energy to grow shell and increasing salinity increasing the energy needed to make shell needed and then don t have enough for reproduction stops reproduction sea urchin broadcast spawning in the open water Under acidic conditions the sperm becomes less motile Reproduction will stop in the next century with predicted results sh orient position in water column using a bone in their ear called an otilith but it dissolves in acidic conditions but sh can tell its happening and will over compensate for this and have overly large otilith and disorients sh Why return used oyster shels into the ocean to help With acidi cation it adds CaCOZ back into ocean and the amount of acid is buffereddissolving dead shells too reduces the damage on the live shells overall Lecture 9 Gas exchange in vertebrate marine organisms larger organisms have a larger body wall which is not suf cient for gas diffusion The volume of stuff that needs gases cannot get them through simple diffusion anymore therefore they have developed internal respitory structures which increases surface area and keeps moist Lungs and gills were the internal structures developed C02 and 02 can only cross cell membranes when they are dissolved in water Gills greatly increases surface area essentially blood vessels covered by thin epithelium unidirectional water ow ow is oxygenated blood ows toward deoxygenated blood rst sh draws in water through itsmouth when it closes its mouth water travels past the gill laments this is where gas exchange occurs one blood vessel carries not oxygenated blood from the body to the lament the blood ows through water ows counter to the ow of blood in the capillaries as a result the concentration gradient will beand gas is exchanged if water and blood owed in the same direction we would start with the water being much higher than the blood and they would equilibrate one another At that point there would be no further exchange Do sharks have to swim to breathe depends on the type of shark buccal pumping meant that they had strong enough muscles in their neck where they could pump water in wiuthout moving ram ventilation larger sharks usually use this they swim through the water with their mouth open and water travels past gills Evolution of Vertebrate lungs 450 mya there was a sh that had outpocketings in the digestive track and those outpocketings eventually became lungs but not all of them became lungs ray nned sh used outpocketings quotgas bladderquot and that is not a breathing device obe nned shes shes we evolved from their outpocketings eventually turned into lungs Functions of the Mammal Respiratory Basic functions of the mammal respiratory system include gas exchange smell sound and maintaining homeostasis by eliminating excess heat and water and adjusting it39s acidbase balance lnhaation is an active process and exhalation is a passive process Hooded Seal and Elephant seal not used for respiratory systemsjust for mating Baeen whales 2 holes in external respiratory system toothed whales only have one whaes evolved from land which had a snout much like a do but through evolutionary time the nose has moved to the top of the head evolutionary bene t was more energetically favorable During its embryonic process the nose starts at the tip of the organism and shifts the nasal openings to the top of the headthis theory says ontogeny mirrors phylogeny whaes have prportinaltely smaller lungs than terrestial counterparts what adaptations do whales have to allow them to dive humans only exchange 15 of their lung capacity but whales exchange 85 90 of air because they have a large tidal volume which allows them to use all of their used air so it can bring in more fresh air larger red blood cells and more of them which means they have a higher oxygen carrying capactiy in their blood more myoglobin than terrestial mammals lots of oxygen so they can utilize it during a dive can shut down vascular system which shunts oxygen away from nonvital organs during dives anaerobic muscle function once oxygen gets used up then whales can buld up lactic acid in their muscles they can tolerate high doses of lactic acid and C02 in the blood Quiz what two structures next to each other in mammalian lungs alveoli amp capillaries Oxygen Transport bood can39t carry enough 02 in a dissolved form to satisfy metabolic needs so instead oxygen is carried bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells higher concentration of oxygen the higher the af nity for it is Parts of our body where af nity is lower like in tissues this happens when the partial pressure of oxygen is low bloodwarmer ppof C02 is high phower blood gets rid of oxygen and tissues hold onto it Carbon Dioxide Transport Most carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate Hemoglobin buffers blood by taking up C02 so reaction moves to left and removes H if we breathed repetitively our ph would rise and become less acid because we are getting rid of C02 and drives the equation to the left Humans vs whales We exhale air with higher 02 and C02 concentrations because when the concentrations of C02 and 02 leave the hear the travel through the lungs again where they pick up mixed air Control of Breathing not being tested on Do whales sleep conscious air breathers used EEG humans there is no difference in brain activity when sleeping or not sleeping Beuga whaleseeps on half of their brain while the other half is awak 8 hours a day Oxygen Dissociation Curves y axis is the percent of hemoglobin that is totally bound to oxygen xaxis partial pressure of oxygen as the amount of oxygen in the blood stream increases the hemoglobin becomes saturated but eventually its reaches a point where there is a rapid decline where as the oxygen in the blood decreases a little and there is a rapid decline in the percentage of oxygen which binds with hemoglobin if the curve is shifted to the left the af nity of the hemoglobin increases Shifts the Curve to the Lefthigher af nity Lowering Temp ncreasing PH Shifts the Curve to the Rightlower af nity higher temp decrease PH Why does this occur ower temperatures there is more oxygen because it can dissolve into liquids if you add more C02 to a system it becomes more acid because of the Bohr effect as you decrease the ph you add more C02 and C02 will bind to the hemoglobin and kicks off oxygen Disscuss with neighbor the implications for respiration in terms of the Bohr effect of carbon pollution that warms the seas and decreases the pH correation between ocean temp and the amount of oxygen in the wateras oceans warm there is less oxygen in the oceans for the organisms to breathe C02 causes this warming of the ocean so there is a surplus of that in the ocean as well which decreases the affnitity for oxygen to bind with hemoglobin because hemoglobin binds better with C02 Ultimately this effects the respiration of marine organisms because they are receiving less oxygen hemogobin saturation increases during a dive the arterial pressure during a dive initially increases but then decreases until deepest point in dive Nitrogen Narcosis happens when pressure causes an increase of nitrogen in the blood and messes up the neural membranes as we go down in depth gases dissolve better drunk feeling The Bends Pressure increases with depth you get more gases you breathe dissolving in your blood when you surface its like a can of soda and all of the dissolved gases will bubble out if you ascent too quickly impaired vision paralysis Bird Respiration have high 02 requirements for ight lnhaation half air goes into posterior air sacs other half goes to anterior air sacs Exhaation both anterior and posterior air sacs empty out So air ows through lungs during inhalation and exhalation and there is no mixing of oxygen rich and oxygen poor air Bird Adaptations no alveoli instead they have parabronchi which is attached to the air sacs capillaries inside where gas exchange occurs hoow bones which allows the air sacs to push into bones and hold more oxygen also makes them less heavy no diaphragm Dead Zones How they form 1during spring fresh water runoff goes into the gulf and creates a barrier layer cutting off the saltier waters contact with oxygen in the air 2 Nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer and sewage ignite algal blooms when algae die they sink into the saltier water and decompose using up oxygen in the water 3 starved of oxygen and cutoff from resupply the water becomes a dead zone sh avoid area Effects of Dead Zones reduces benthic biomass and diversity massive sh kills from hypoxia reduced shery yield What can be done use fewer fertilizers control of animal waste so they can39t enter waterways monitor septic systems
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