Lecture 6 & 7
Lecture 6 & 7 MSCI 311
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by BaylessK on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 311 at University of South Carolina taught by Griffen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Biology of Marine Organisms in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
After test 1September 15 2015 Energy metabolism Requirements cellular respiration and other related material Oceans are warming part a gobe as unit increases in temp but most of the energy goes to increasing oceans waters instead of the land Bottom water temperatures and for all oceans it is increasing with time Oceans are taking up a lot of heat Warmer water holds less oxygen part b What is the relationship between ability of gases to dissolve into the water and the water temperature dissolved gasses on y axis and H20 temp on x axis and line should go down ess oxygen can be dissolved in the water as the temperature increases Less oxygen will lead to smaller sh part c as gets warmer the sh try to stay in temperature range they are comfortable in Fish are becoming smaller At 0 there is no change in body size of sh and in all oceans the size is decreasing Populations will decrease because the bigger a female sh the more eggs she can produce This will happen in all oceans of the world right column Evolution of animals in the world over geological time build up of atmospheric oxygen over geologic time Live evolved without oxygen 222 bill cyanobacteria evolve and give off oxygen by metabolic process Ocean took up oxygen until saturated and then stared to over ow to land Aerobic respiration evolves to use oxygen in metabolismgave rise to huge variations of animals Key concepts Water biological molecules and energetics Nutrients Thermodynamics and energy activation energy and enzymes ATP oxidationreduction reactions Why are cells so small Surfacetovolume ration the bigger a cell is the less surface area there is per unit volume above a certain size material cannot be moved in or out of the cell fast enough unicelular organism like algae or in bodySA is important because anything cell needs happens across the membrane surface As SA to Volume gets smaller and smaller theres so much volume and not enough SA theres not enough SA to keep up with needs Nutrients Organisms have to acquire nutrients at certain times of year or at diff locations Algae differs in nutrient content by species Control an organisms diet must bring in suf ent nutirents to engage in metabolic processes Micronutrients and vitamins Required for metabolism in small amounts needed for speci c metabolic reactions important for metabolic processes no way to get them except from its environment Cannot be synthesized by organisms Must be obtained from speci c diets Nutrients lron limitation ocean gyres have low primary production because lack of Fe used for photosynthesisfrom wind deep vent systems Fe comes mainly from dust that blows from continents 2 Laws of Thermodynamics controls all metabolic processes 1st law Energy is constant cant be created or destroyed but converted stored to kinetic 2 d law amount useful energy decreases when energy transformations occur lose as heatdisorder of system increases entropy always increases Sources of energy Photosynthesis Primary Productiviy Most near coasts highest where nutrients are abundant upwelling regions near areas oh highly population density and off arid coasts due to Aeolian transport Sources of energy chemosynthesis Chemical energy instead of sunlight Symbiotic bacteria in gut uses sul de or methane to produce Hydrogen as an energy source Many deep sea vent animals use either H25 or CH4 as energy source New evidence is that symbiotic bacteria Bathomodiolis mussel also use H2 converting it to water and harnessing the energy rst new natural energy source discovered in 25 years Energy Transfer is Imperfect Some energy used for biological processes catabolism Some lost as heat to surrounding system In general inef cient process two sources of energy external to organisms used to x carbon and put it into usable state sugar use and breakdown to capture energy Inef cient process so a lot of energy is lost Depends on animal what it eats and environment Tropic Interactions Bacteria are responsible for 3050 oceans Primary Production Eats DOM leaked cytoplasm dissolved ATP Micro agellates eat bacteria and Zooplankton eat Micro agellates Returns DOM back into food chain of larger organisms where it can be utilized jelly sh Blooms Shunt Food Energy from sh to Bacteria increase in nutrients being pumped from rivers spurs Primary Production and provides more food to jelly Climate change warm temp speeds up metabolic process grow larger oss of large predators due to over shing Size of arrows is amount of biomass passed on microbial loop Before jelly sh weren t a big player and on the outside Lots of sh and zooplankton Now jelly sh are inside microbial loop the produce a lot of mucus that is produced and has high CN ratio much higher that DOM oating around in ocean This mucus is eaten by bacteria and was compared to Gatoradegives large amount of energy but not a lot for biomass building or nutrients so in the end isn t sent up food chain just metabolized and burnt offlots of C02 coming off as byproduct of metabolism Changes abundance of food in food chain less sh lost ofjelly sh and bacteria Photosynthesis produce glucose and oxygen as byproduct Glucose not as stable as the reactants but a more concentrated source of energy Reversible can release energy by breaking these chemical bonds metabolism Endergonicrequires energy ExergonicProduces energy endothermic and exo Enzymes and activation energies In order to get started requires small energy input and total energy is positive Yields more energy than put in but requires some to start activation energy Enzyme reduces that activation energy or energy needed to put in to get process started Does this by aligning reactive chemicals destabilizing electrical charges and breaking bonds They can bring chemicals that aren t abundant to react together to turn them the right way slide Allosteric Activators when enzyme binds changes formation of binding site so that it can react Environmental factors play a roll in affecting enzymes hormones working as enzymes shown for three sharks each becomes more active as the temperature increase Cofactors next timeelectron transporters in cell Ocean warming and energetic requirements metabolic rate of squid embryos with ocean temperature higher temp means higher metabolic rate By year 2100 metabolic rate will be almost double Ph05phorvlation any phosphate group transfer ATP adenine connected to ve carbon sugar ribose connected to 12 or 3 inorganic phosphates ATP ADP or AMP Remove ATP liberate energy from that bond Calcium pump creates gradient over phospholipid bylayer the pump connects to calcium ion taking energy from ATP changing into ADP Metabolism Breakdown of molecules aerobic repiration yields energy Energy in photo or chemo Metabolic pathways enzymemediated sequence of reactions in cells Biosyntheticanabolic require energy input Degradativecatabolic net release of energy 0 These processes are all essentially the same in all organismsgtre ects common evolutionary origin and thermodynamics Metabolic Pathways series of connected enzymatic reactions that produce speci c producs Catabolic or anabolic Componenets are called metabolites gt4000 metabolic pathways knownbut most catabolic processes converge on small set of metabolties and reactions Direction of metabolic reactions o Bidirectionscells can efficiently control reactions so that there is precisely the right amount of reactant and product Does this by controlling rates of reaction in each direction 0 Unidirectionalenergy from the sun is converted into sugars that provide cellular energy Oxidationreduction reactionsredox reactions don t get one on its own Taking electron oxidized and giving to another which is reduced Molecule looses electron oxidized gaining reduced slide Important to capture energy to use in metabolic processes OiL RiG Oxidation is the Loss of electirons and Reduction is the Gain of electrons Redox potential Eh Ehredox potentialtendency of chemical species to acquire electrons become reduced 0 Measured in volts V or millivolts mV 0 The more positive the higher the tendency to gain electrons be reduced 0 The more negative the higher the tendency to lose electrons to be oxidized Continued Energy Metabolism 917 oxygen becomes nal electron acceptor higher redox potential more positive more likely it is to become electron acceptor Why is oxygen the preferred electron acceptor highly electornegative the more neg energy is the more released second law of thermo entropy increases so we know it will increase as much as possible if two choices one with a lot of energy released or less energythe one that s more thermodynamic Thermodynamically most stable Cellular resp is NOT the process of cells breathing much more complex Broken into three steps glycolysis krebs and electron transfer phosphorylation Molecules involved in respiration take food going into body capture energy used in bonds holding molecules together and use energy to synthesis ATP BOTH aerobic and anaerobic Both start in cytoplasm Aerobic completed in mitochondria and oxygen required yields more ATP more efficient Anaerobic completed in cyto absence of oxygen Aerobic respiration happens in all organisms Glycolysis C6H1206 602 gt 6C02 6H20 2 ATP invested energyrequiring steps start with glucose 6 carbon sugar Take atp break of phosphorus yielding adp and phosphate group sticks on glucose Yields fructose Yields second atp take a phosphorus off bond to other side yielding fructose biphosphate Put energy in by 2 ATP in order to get process started energy yielding steps PGAL starting take NAD and pick up proton with inorganic phosphate to yield NADH and molecule biphosphosphoglycerate Break off phosphorus yielding one end up with 2 3carbon sugars pyruvate and 2 ATP Done with glycolysis Krebs Cycle moving out of cytoplasm and into mitochondria Has outter membrane and inner membrane which divides into two compartments outter and inner Enzymes that carry out respiration are inside uid in inner compartment Electron transport chain is embedded within inner membrane Krebs cycle takes molecules and two pyruvates all 6 carbons 3 from each pyruvate leave ass 6 CO2 Reducing coenzymes and produce 2 atp Start two pyruvate for each glucose you start with Go through twice but one cycle shown Cleave off one carbon NAD is reduced to NADH C02 comes off acetylCoA forms and eneters krebs cycle and bonds with 4 carbon molecule to form citrate Then same process goes through twice Kick of carbon NADgtNADH 2X then gain 1 ATP by phosphorylating atp Go through krebs twice cus 2 total ATP In the end end up with same thing we start with Regenerates itself FADH and NADH coenzymes carry protons and electronsgt to electron transport chain Electron Transport chain Look at the stair slide spent electron with energy reduced is then accepted with oxygen to yield water nner mitochondrial membrane NADH and FADH2 give up electrons to transfer chains When e are transferred through the chains protons is shuttled across the membrane to outer compartment high concentration of protons across the pressure gradient Free oxygen is nal acceptor of electrons at the end of the chain Protons concentration and electric gradients exist across membrane Protons follow the gradients through the interior of ATP synthases to inner compartment The ow drives the formation of ATP from ADP and unbound phosphate Happens over and over to generate lots of ATP NADH contribute to rst imbedded protein and FADH contribute to second protein Only when that is transferred is the energy transferred So NADH contains more energy than FADH because starting earlier in process NADH 3 ATP produced and FADH 2 ATP produced Summary start glyc Start 2 end 2 so net gain of 2 Cannot enter mitochondria so give up e and protons to transport protiens in mitochondria membrane FAD that are already inside accept these forming FADH2 2 form from each FADH28 3 from each NADH24 24832 Total ATP budget from whole process 8 from total of FADH 4 total 8 NADHyields 324 32 total as a result of process Know end products of glycolysis and pattern of krebs and whats yielding and how products are used in E transport chain 36 per molecule of glucose is the net gain Blue crabs are the most captured by weight crabs in the us and fth most valuable catches declinedcoud be virus bacteria contaminants Pathogens and pollutants impar the crabs metabolic process aerobic respiration found whole bunch of glucose build up in cellspathogen limits ability of crabs to metabolism their oxygen and disperse it around to different cells It can eat as much as it wants but the dispersal to cells as glucose the cells don t have enough oxygen to break it down They need oxygen as that nal election acceptor to nish out respiration process Anaerobic respiration end up with 2 ATP vs 36 Fermentation alcoholic and lactate Biofuels use process to generate energy to wide range of natural products start with glycolysis end up with 2 pyruvate and a few NADH Stays in cytoplasm Lactate fermentationOmakes yogurt cheese and sore muscles Shows build up in lactic acid in muscles in penguins and seal Why is it that over time 02 built up in atmosphere that it got large enough to support large bodied organisms metaboic rate atp required per hour vs body mass see increase in metabolic rate Takes more atp to support size of your body Wh y is that sh are projected to become smaller in oceanthere is less oxygen available due to warmer water Bigger sh require more oxygen How does an organisms body deal With all different kinds of foods fats nitrogen carbon detritus Fatsgtfatty acidsgtacetyl coAgtkrebs 1 gtgycerolgtPGALgtpyruvategtacetylcoAgtkrebs proteinsgtindividua amino acidsgtnh3 leaves in urea and yields carbon backbonesgt pyruvate acetyl coa and krebs Enter at different stages so different levels of efficiency Fatty acids yield so much more energy because more carbons Maximize feed conversion ef ciency in farmed sh sh oil or sh meal that s powder comes from bones and non oil Increasing sh oil more ef cient that increasing shmeal increasing sh oil will increase the growth rate of the sh than will increasing sh mealfeed them oily diet The Process as a Cycle Photosynthesis energy in gt organic compounds oxygengtaerobic respirationenergy out gtcarbon dioxide water gtrestart Byproducts of one is substrate for other Without either whole thing will fall apart Environmental sources of ATP organisms dye cells lyse release atp bacteria take up ATP and use for cellular processes the Figure shows the depth pro le of ATP in the ocean