Week 7 Lecture Notes
Week 7 Lecture Notes ATY 253-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Hall on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATY 253-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Charles P. Egeland in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Anthrpolgy in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
92915 Lecture Notes Amber Hall 0 Body Plan 0000 000000 0 Postorbital openingbarclosing Retain many ancestral features Versatile dentition number and type of teeth in each quadrant of the arcade Good sense of touch Dermal ridges fingerprints enhanced touch Nails instead of claws Binocular vision 3D vision because eyes are on front of head Color vision Reduced snouts reduced smell No rhinarium wet nose with whiskers Expanded visual area of the brain Large brain relative to body size 0 Life history learning and behavior 0 O O 0 Small of offspring Long interbirth intervals Long maturation periods Social life and learning 0 Locomotion getting around 0 O O moving on all 4 legs Arboreal quadruped in trees Terrestrial quadruped on land 3 Forelimb hindlimb Vertical clingingleaping 3 Forelimb ltlt hindlimb supporting weight with forearms 3 Forelimb gt hindlimb 0 Getting Food 0 O O O Omnivore eating a diversity of foods nsectivore eating insects Folivore eating leaves Frugivore eating fruits o Primate taxonomy 0 Major divisions Strepsirhines vs haplorhines suborder Platyrrhines vs catarrhines intraorder Cercopithecoids vs hominoids superfamily Groups of hominoids O quotwet nose Rely more on smell Retain the rhinarium Some have claws instead of nails on some digits Most are nocturnal active at night quotdry nose Tarsiers New world NW monkeys platyrrhines Old world OW monkeys apes humans catarrhines 3 Shared features I More orthognathic and bigger brains I Post orbital closure NW monkeys platyrrhines quotbroadnosed 2 1 3 3 dental formula Prehensile tail tail that can grasp objects or substrates I ONLY some platyrrhines have prehensile tails OW monkeys and apes catarrhines hooknosed 2 1 2 3 dental formula OW monkeys cercopithecoids Nonprehensile tail Found in areas from Africa to Japan Hominoids apes and humans Bigger body sizes No tails More complex brains and behavior Infant dependency and maturation taken to extreme Extremely mobile shoulders suspensory hanging below branches adaptation Flat rounded molars Bunodont quotY5 molar morphology 10115 Lecture Notes Amber Hall 0 Gibbons and Siamangs 0 Range Southeast Asia 0 Size 1525le 0 Orangutans 0 Range Borneo and Sumatra 0 Size 100200Ibs o Gorillas O O 0 Range Central Africa Size 200400le Largest primate o Chimpanzees and Bonobos OOO Range Equatorial Africa Size 50100le Chimps male dominated Bonobos female dominated conflict resolution through sex 0 Primate Societies O Primates are very expressive Yawn intimidation Grin fear Hugs and kisses reassurance Complex relationships and alliances based on Kinship Agesex Rank social class Longterm relationships common Sexual dimorphism morphological differences between males and females Body size Canine size I One male multifemale polygyny gorillas I One female multimale polyandry tamarins I Multimale multifemale pairbonded gibbons o Primate Ecology 0 Getting food Food quality energy available and how easy it is to digest leaveslowest fruitsbetter meat and insectshighest Food distribution and availability where and how is food located and when is it available I Relationship 1 getting food and range size Home range area exploited by a primate group within lifetime Quality Dist And avail Range size High patchy less predictable large Medium patchy more predictable medium Low uniform very predictable small Rule 1 high diet quality high home range size I Relationship 2 getting food and body size 3 Large bodied primates high absolute energy needs low relative energy needs 3 Small bodied primates low absolute energy needs high relative energy needs Body size Energy needs Diet Quality Absolute total Relative per lb Small lower higher higher Large higher lower lower Rule 2 high body size low diet quality 0 Primate behavior and human origins 0 Some things that set humans apart Bipedalism 3 When do nonhuman primates use bipedalism gt Carrying gt Support on flimsy branches gt Feeding