Week 4 Notes
Week 4 Notes FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Week 4 Notes Carbohydrates cont Soluble vs insoluble fibers 0 Cellulose insoluble found in outer skins o Pectin soluble found inside fruits o Ligninhemicellulose insoluble outermost shell of grains bran o Soluble fibers in fruits oats and legumes help lower blood cholesterol delay gastric emptying lowers blood glucose and feeds bacteria in gut Sweeteners o Mono and disaccharides table sugar high fructose corn syrup I High fructose corn syrup 55 fructose 45 glucose similar to sucrose composition 0 Sugar alcohols few calories used in sugar free gum 0 Alternative sweeteners I Saccharin sweet n low Can t be cooked Doesn t provide any energy for the body I Aspartame equal Can t be cooked Contains phenylalanine 4 kcal g but 200x sweeter than table sugar so less is needed 0 Sweetness level from lowest to highest lactose sucrose fructose artificial sweeteners Daily Recommendations FDA recommends 130g of carbs per day with as few sugars as possible 0 Most people do not get as much fiber as they need daily Digestion of Carbohydrates o All carbs are 4kcal g they provide energy for daily activities 0 Eating carbs also spares the body from having to use proteins to make energy I Eating carbs helps prevent ketosis when carbs are not present energy is made by converting fat into energy Sometimes fats are not broken down all the way and are left as harmful ketones o Indigestible fiber promotes bowel health prevents diverticulosis The steps of carbohydrate digestion 1 There is a small amount of amylase in the mouth to start breaking down starches 2 Not much happens as carbs pass through the stomach 3 As carbs enter the small intestine the pancreas dumps in enzymes to break them down so simple sugars can be absorbed by the small intestine 4 In the large intestine bacteria break up the remaining insoluble ber 5 Once glucose and fructose are absorbed they are sent to the liver 0 Fructose is metabolized much differently than glucose so it needs to be converted to glucose before it can be used 0 If more glucose is ingested than needed it is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for controlling blood sugar and to provide energy The rest is converted to fat 0 Blood sugar control I Insulin made in pancreas when glucose levels are high targets liver muscles and adipose tissue tells tissue to take in glucose from the blood and tells liver to stop adding glucose into the blood I Glucagon when glucose levels are low Tells liver to break down glycogen and release it as glucose into the blood stream Health concerns 0 Too much fiber can lead to constipation o Lactose intolerance I Primary undigested lactose is consumed by gut bacteria I Secondary Crohn s disease can also damage lactase producing cells creating the same effect as the primary cause 0 Glucose intolerance I Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia Diabetes I Type 1 childhood onset 5 of cases The immune system destroys pancreas cells that recognize glucose in the blood Insulin pumps must be used in conjunction with an adjusted diet High risk of blindness heart disease or amputation I Type 2 adult onset Cells build up a tolerance to insulin and stop reacting so the pancreas makes more and more until the cells burn out Results in hyperglycemia Treatment prevention includes changing diet exercising or medication Trend in rising levels of obesity is a direct cause of the rise in diabetes Insulin production is only made when glucose is present in the blood stream not fructose fats Other blood sugar disorders 0 Metabolic syndrome I Precursor to obesity and type 2 diabetes I High blood triglycerides increasing body fat 0 Hypoglycemia I Caused by an exaggerated insulin response I Can happen when you don t eat enough Glycemic Index 0 Tests the blood glucose in response to food 0 A ratio of a blood glucose compared to a standard ingesting glucose at a standard amount by weight 0 Lower GI numbers are good the higher the number the faster levels drop back down to the quothungryquot level Glycemic Load 0 Similar to the CI but rather than measuring in a standard weight of food the CL uses a serving size of the food as the standard amount Lipids 3 main groups include triglycerides phospholipids and sterols Triglycerides TC 0 Most of the fats in the human diet are triglycerides 0 Made up of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids 0 2 important processes in body I Esterification the reaction that builds triglycerides most cells in the body can do this I Lipolysis burns energy by breaking down fat 0 classification of triglycerides I Chain length Long chain fatty acids 12 carbons or more 0 Mostly animal based Medium chain fatty acids 610 0 Ex coconut oil Short Chain fatty acids less than 6 0 Not found in diet but made by bacteria in gut and then absorbed I Saturation Saturated fats no double bonds 0 found in animals coconut oil Monounsaturated fats one double bond 0 Peanut oil olive oil Polyunsaturated fats many double bonds 0 Soybean oil corn oil 0 Cis bent make the molecule exible 0 Trans make unsaturated look like saturated fats rigid made when fats are partially hydrogenated margarine shortening Hydrogenation the process by which fats are saturated by breaking double bonds to add hydrogen Originally used because chains with double bonds would spoil more easily that saturated fats Traits that make fats solid at room temperature I Long chain length I High saturation I Trans bonds instead of cis Naming unsaturated fatty acids I Ex C183 the fatty acid has 13 carbons and the first double bond is 3 from the end Essential fatty acids the body can t make these both work as hormones to stop bad in ammation ex eicosanoids I Linoleic C182 Omega6 Used to make longer chain fatty acids in the body I Alphalinoleic C182 Omega3 Also used to make longer chain fatty acids Major component of fish oils Fat replacements I Olestra I Reduced fat soluble vitamin absorption I Products were never taken up on a massive scale because consumers ha major digestive problems with the molecule bacteria in the gut did not handle it well causing gastrointestinal distress Functions I Most is stored in adipose tissue I Used for insulation energy storage cushioning for organs I Stores essential fat soluble vitamins Phospholipids O O O O 0 Sterols O O 0 Makes up cell membranes Emulsifier makes small amounts of fats soluble in water Cam be made by the body or found in foods egg yolks Made of a glycerol molecule and 2 fatty acids When fats and water mix in the presence of phospholipids micelles form around the fat making a small amount soluble in water Ring structure rather than fatty acids chains Building blocks for hormones bile Most sterols come from plant sources
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