POSI 2310 Ch 8
POSI 2310 Ch 8 2310
Popular in Principles of American Government
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2310 at Texas State University taught by Joshua Quinn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Principles of American Government in Political Science at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
POSI 2310 Ch 8 Political Parties Candidates and Campaigns Defining the Voter s Choice 0 These are the different ways to define popular will and how people can shape the government I Party Competition and Majority Rule The History of US Parties a A political party is an ongoing coalition of interest joined together under a common label i Key attempting to get candidates elected ii Link individuals to government provide a collective voice b The first parties i Federalists 1 Formed by Madison strong federal government ii Democratic Republicans 1 Formed by Jefferson emphasized ties to the common person iii Democratic Republicans transform into Democrats c Andrew Jackson and grassroots parties i Jackson had a grudge against the elite this party was open to the public ii Dependent upon voter support and local organizations iii Democrats versus Whigs 1 Party politics splits Dems 2 Republicans emerge from Whigs a Antislavery iv Election of 1860 1 Lincoln wins only won 40 of the popular vote 2 Democrats split the votes between North and South had 2 different nominees which allowed Lincoln to win d Republicans versus Democrats Voter realignments and the enduring party system i Same 2 parties since the Civil War whenever a new issue arises a party takes it over and incorporates voters ii Realignment people change their party affiliation and stay there iii Three basic elements 1 Divisive issues disruption of existing political order 2 Election voters shift support strongly toward one party 3 Enduring change in party coalitions to favor dominant party iv History of realignments 1 Civil War Republicans gain control a President Lincoln won the Civil War and was Republican antislavery 2 1896 Republicans solidify control a Three years before bank crash President Cleveland was Democrat and voters held him accountable 3 1932 Democrats gain control a Great Depression President Hoover blamed for the market crash v The nature and origins of today s party alignment 1 Republicans a Dominant in South Eastern states felt isolated social issues b Controlled presidency twice more than Democrats since 1968 c Controlled both houses of Congress a third of the time since 1968 d Missteps of Nixon and George W Bush weakened power 2 Democrats a Dominant in Northeast history of being socially liberal b Civil rights stance caused loss of power in South c Less dominant party since 1968 gradual not over a single issue 3 Analysts divided on which party will have greater power going forward vi Parties and the vote 1 Strength of party identification a 2012 Obama and Romney both had 90 support 2 Rarity of true independents 3 Straightticket and splitticket voting a Straight ticket Checking Democrat or Republican on the ticket 80 voters do b Percentage of people who split ticket decreasing people less interested in knowing candidate The Effect of Electoral Systems on Party Systems a Plurality singlememberdistrict system of election i Each electoral district chooses one member then one person wins ii Contrast with multiparty system and proportional representation iii Encourages twoparty system 1 Small percentage doesn t count b Politics and coalitions in the twoparty system i Seeking the center median voter theorem 1 Parties look for the section between the two people in the middle of the political spectrum ii Party coalitions 1 Broad and overlapping but far from identical appeal to many issues 2 Gender gap a Democrats have more women by 510 but only with white voters Party Identification Among Hispanic Registered Voters a Hispanic is the fastest growing demographic b Immigration pushes trends creating a wider gap between the parties IV Electoral and Party Systems a Minor third parties i Singleissue parties 1 Greenback Party a Wanted silver and gold coins to not be the only form of currency ii Factional parties 1 Bull Moose Party 1912 a Teddy Roosevelt wanted the chance to run for president again the rift he created caused the other party to win the election iii Ideological parties 1 Green Party 2000 iv Reform parties 1 Reform Party 1992 a Progressive Party most successful V Party Organizations a The weakening of party organizations i Nominations 1 Loss of party control to candidates ii Primary electiondirect primary 1 Hinders strong party organizations 2 Breaks party control of who will be in the election iii Loss of party power over patronage 1 Money donation don t come to the party it goes to the candidates b The structure and role of party organizations i Local party organizations 1 Where 95 of party activists are ii State party organizations 1 Central committee a Argue about the platform 2 Chairperson a Controls the argument 3 Concentrate on statewide races a Governors Senators iii National party organizations 1 Structure of the national parties same as state 2 Run training programs for candidates and their staffs 3 Runs presidential nomination conventions 4 Major role in campaigns is raising and spending of money VI The CandidateCentered Campaign a Campaign funds the money chase i ts expensive to run for offices ii The party is faceless people want to give their money to a person b Organization and strategy political consultants i Campaign strategists 1 Tell candidates what to say ii Pollsters 1 Tell candidates what the people want them to say iii Media producers iv Fundraising experts 1 Make sure the candidate says these things in front of the right people c Limits on fund raising i Hard money given to candidate limits on how much can be given ii Soft money spent quoton behalf of the candidate d Packaging highlight aspects of candidate s positions and background throughout to be attractive and more electable to voters e Voter outreach spreading your message money spent on advertising i Air wars 1 Main battleground advertising through media TV radio ii Ground wars 1 Going doortodoor and asking people if they re going to vote iii Web wars 1 Raises funds well iv In retrospect the consequences of the last war 1 Prospective voting a Voting because of what the person says they ll do 2 Retrospective voting a Voting because of what the person has done f Presidential campaign spending 2012 i Media 59 ii Fundraising 14 iii Strategy and research 4 iv Salaries and administration 16 v Other 7 VII Parties Candidates and the Public s Influence a Stronger relationships between voters and representatives i Vote for the person rather than the party b Weaker relationships between voters and representative institutions i Institutions exist beyond the candidate s term but people focus on the candidate himself c Candidatecentered campaigns add flexibility d Candidatecentered campaigns decrease accountability
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