MU 2313 Ch 9
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
MU 2313 Ch 9 The Early Renaissance Renaissance a Renaissance Rebirth i Interest in classical thought ie GreekRoman philosophy science b 3 distinct phases i Early Renaissance Florence 14001500 ii High Renaissance Rome and Venice 14501550 iii Renaissance outside Italy amp tied to Protestant Reformation northern Europe 14001600 Inquiry and Discovery a Reading and reinterpreting ancient texts Aristotle Plato gt desire to measure and quantify b Stronger interest in the sciences i Anatomy biology botany astronomy engineering geography ii Vitruvius creates the idea of the ideal human proportions drawn by da Vinci Ideal human is 8 heads high c Scholas public schools Governance a Papal States i States not unified conflict between citystates ii Made effort to regain control after Great Schism 1 Roman Catholic Church attempting to regain control and reconcile its power ii Nicholas V 1 Vatican Library a Religious philosophical scientific texts 2 Funded research for scholars v Pius II 1 Attracted artistsintellectuals v Sixtus IV 1 Sistine Chapel and the founding of Sistine choir b Italian CityStates i Peace of Lodi 1454 1 Florence Venice and Milan joined alliance as a response to the conflict in the rest of Europe Hundred Years War 2 Naples joins later ii Rise of autocracy 1 12 families are in charge Quattrocento 1400s in Florence a Largestmost powerful city in Europe b Medici family i Bankers most powerful family in Florence c Cosimo de Medici i Plato academy arts supportercollector gardener ii Expanded family s wealth beyond Florence d Lorenzo de Medici i Grandson of Cosimo ii Ran the largest international bank in Europe iii Created the Council of Seventy 1 Florence was under attack this representative body helps lead the city 2 Passed progressive taxation the richer you are the more taxes you pay iv quotRenaissance Man 1 Amateur musician gardener arts sciences did a little of everything V Concepts a Humanism i Enjoyment of life is more important than the anticipation of the afterlife ii Shift from medieval mindset iii Petrarch poet 1 Creates the Petrarchan Sonnet focus on love used in song form so has an impact on music iv Pico della Mirandola quotOration on the Dignity of Man 1 Collection of 900 theses his goal was to collect all human knowledge in one place 2 Church found 13 of his theses heretical which put him at risk of being burned at the stake 3 He issues an apology and flees to France b Individualism i Art commissions to raise personal prestige 1 Great artists want to be paid for their work c Scientific Naturalism i Verisimilitude lifelikeness nearness to truth portray the human body in a lifelike way d Capitalism i Exchange of goods and services VI Art a Masaccio The Tribute Money c 1427 i Scene from Gospel of Matthew ii Jesus and his disciples are at a temple and are met by a tax collector iii Jesus tells Peter to go catch a fish and take the coins that he will find in its mouth which they will give to the tax collector iv Three scenes in one painting v Contrapposto stance of tax collector vi Mountains in the background are hazy which gives the portrait depth b Masaccio The Holy Trinity c 142627 i Positioned at head level when standing so you tilt your head up to look at it ii No matter where you stand you get the perspective of looking up iii Our view is set below the Holy Trinity iv The dove floating over Jesus head represents the Holy Spirit c Fra Angelico Annunciation c 1434 i The moment when the angel appears to the Virgin Mary to announce she will give birth to the Son of God ii Includes text from scripture angel s words go forward Mary s responses are read backward iii Background Adam amp Eve being chased from the Garden of Eden iv Column between Mary and the angel has the image of the prophet Isaiah whose prophecy is coming true v The receding row of columns creates depth d Boticelli La Primavera c 1478 Lyricism i Figures seem to float not grounded ii A sense of deep space is not present iii Features Roman gods Mercury the three Fates Venus Flora Zephyrus iv Each figure portrays something different 1 Mercury speculation 2 Venus introspection e Boticelli The Birth of Venus c 1482 i Venus appears rising over the sea ii Signifies the birth of beauty in the minds of humankind V Sculpture a Donatello St George 1415 i Myth of St George he slayed a dragon 1 The sculpture s shield has bite marks on the edge ii Commissioned by the armor amp sword making guild iii Sculpture originally had a sword advertisement for the guild iv Religious connotation Christ victorious over sin sin symbolized by serpentdragon v Normal human proportions lifelike b Donatello David c 143040 i Doesn t look heroic depicts an adolescent boy ii Victory over Goliath victory of the faithful over sin c Donatello Equestrian Monument to Gattamelata 144550 i Donatello s greatest achievement ii Challenge of equestrian sculptures making the focus on the rider not the horse 1 Difficult to do since the horse is larger than the rider iii Accomplished by giving the rider more detail and surface variation which draws the eye in d Ghiberti The Sacrifice of Isaac 1402 i Relief sculpture ii Biblical scene of Abraham with a knife to his son s throat an angel swooping in iii At the Florence Cathedral e Ghiberti The Story of Jacob and Esau panel of The Gates of Paradise c 1435 i One of several panels ii Relief sculpture 1 Characters protrude from the surface iii Added depth with the arches in the background iv Attempt to portray life as we see it f Florence Cathedral begun 1296 dome by Brunelleschi 142036 i 1296 was during the high Gothic period 1 Cathedral was originally made in that style 2 Contemporary aspects were added to the newer model ii Dome is 8 sided iii Lantern on top of the dome provides light inside the dome was the last piece to be built iv Dome created by series of interlocking ribs making a skeleton structure V Music a Dufay s Nuper Rosarum Flores i Motet 1 Sacred work not part of the mass 2 Primarily vocal work which allows the composer to feature unique text ii Composed for March 25 1436 consecration of the Florence Cathedral 1 Best musicians and composer hired to play music for the event iii Cantus firmus quotMagnificent is this place 1 Unique line of Gregorian chant iv Props to the pope 1 Pope is the one who s paying for the completion of the cathedral and paying Dufay to be there v 6423 1 Shifts in meter 2 Refers to the dimensions of the Temple of Solomon IX Literature a Petrarch i Petrarchan Sonnets 1 Love poems 2 Dedicated to Laura b Lorenzo de Medici i Poet c Machiavelli i The Prince 1 Written to advise the young ruler how to lead 2 Asks the question Is it more important to be loved or feared by your followers 3 Machiavelli thinks its better to be feared d Pico della Mirandola i quotOration on the Dignity of Man
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