Intelligence Notes PSY 3135
U of M
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by EMMYSOTO on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3135 at University of Minnesota taught by Dr. Mitchell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Individual Differences in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Intelligence I 92815 353 PM Defining Intelligence 0 intelligence is what the tests testquot 0 EG Boring Correlations 0 Measures must be valid and reliable 0 To get a perfect correlation both things must be measured perfectly Scores and criterion measures almost always include error 0 What this means is that we are almost always underestimating the true magnitude of association Translation correlation of 6 is very high for individual research Main points to keep in mind 0 Human outcomes are complex and compleny caused Intelligence tests are important 0 They are not the only predictors 0 General influences are easier to find compared to specificunique in uences What is intelligence 0 Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment 0 Wechler 1939 o The ability to deal with complexity o A capability for understanding our surroundings A general ability to reason plan solve problems think abstractIy learn quickly and learn from experience 0 Intelligence general Cognitive Ability 0 That ability which is tapped by all cognitively demanding tasks 0 Construct II 9 o the factor latent variable that represents variance common to all cognitively demanding tasks 0 latent variable 0 Score on a test designed to assess an individual s cognitive functioning for the purpose of clinical evaluation or educational intervention 0 Measured variable 0 Central features 0 Treated as a normally distributed feature 0 Recognized as an ordinal measure Attributes can be ordered a Ex Pain scales 0 Presumed to be relatively inflexible o Assumed to be general With modest of subdivisions What is IQ Follows the normal distribution 0 Average score 100 with relatively fixed percentage of the population between each interval SD 15 in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Intelligence is relatively stable 0 You are pretty much as intelligent today as you will be next week 0 Intelligence is fairly firm 0 You cannot easily improve your level of intelligence relative to your peers With the exception of knowledge 0 Intelligence can be decreased relatively easily though Empirically Correct vs Politically Correct 0 We are all very likely above average in intelligence 0 The average intelligence of college freshman and college graduates is one standard deviation above average Measurement scale 0 Ordinal 0 Order of group matters but not the distance between values Pain scales Stability of IQ Testretest reliability 0 The correlation of an individual s score between two different takings of the test 0 WAIS 95 IQ tests are robust o Relatively unaffected by normal variations in health alertness etc Genes vs environment IQ is for the most part genetic 0 Strong biological component Developmental trajectories Socioeconomic status affects developmental trajectories of IQ 0 With higher socioeconomic status associated with higher IQ and lower socioeconomic status associated with lower IQ Are the tests coachable though 0 Yes but minimally Factor Model Positive Manifold Spearman What is g No strong evidence for the existence of multiple intelligencesquot Conclusions so far 0 Intelligence is somewhat hard to define but there are many ways to measure it 0 Normally distributed ordinal inflexible general Basic Distinctions 0 Typical vs maximal performance 0 Almost all intelligence tests assess maximal performance How well can you do something eg read a passage on a test 0 Typical performance how do you normally do something eg read a passage in a book 0 Timed vs Untimed 0 Speed tests 0 How many questions can you complete in a limited amount of time 0 Timed 0 Easy questions 0 Power tests 0 What is the most difficult level of question you can solve o Often untimedgiven plenty of time 0 Hard questions David Wechsler IQ computed based on normal distribution from multiple subtest scores corrected for chronological age 0 Items on subtests ordered in difficulty score depends on how far along in difficulty examinee gets 0 Current Wechsler IQ tests are among the most frequently administered tests by professional psychologists They are the most reliable Fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence the ability to learn new things and solve novel problems irrespective of previous knowledge education or expenence o Tapped by tests that have minimal cultural content and require native inate not acquired problem solving ability raw mental processing power Crystallized intelligence the knowledge information and skills that can be used to solve problems related to what one has already learned 0 Tapped by tests on acquired knowledge such as vocabulary and numerical ability CattelHorn Investment theory 0 2 major group factors reflecting tests common underlying cognitive process 0 Gf tests primarily measuring reasoning amp onthespot mental computation o Gc tests primarily measuring recall of acquired knowledge 0 Test could have loadings on both 0 Ex Analogies Intelligence and outcomes 0 Income divorce intelligence of offspring self rated well being health and longevity and semen quality are all predicted by IQ Fluid vs Crystallized Fluid amp Crystallized have different developmental trajectories o Fluid declines during late adulthood o Crystallized stable early through late adulthood except in cases of dementia Ackerman s PPIK is a more sophisticated extension of CattelHorn Investigation Theory 0 Intelligence as Erocess o Eersonality o Interests 0 Intelligence as Knowledge G and Work 0 g is always predictive of occupational performance but especially so when that job is 0 Less routinized o More complex 0 Objectively measureable output 0 Heavy on technical performance compared to citizenship performance Why does intelligence relate to job performance 0 The relation is partially due to mediated by job Compensation with other traits Compensatory hypothesis for conscientiousness and cognitive ability 0 Cognitive ability is the ability to deal with complexity Does IQ matter 0 Of the differences between people we can currently explain a lot of that is explained by IQ 0 Job performance 0 Academic success 0 Health outcomes 0 Avoiding accidental death 0 But there are still large differences between people that we are unable to explain 0 Life satisfaction is only very weakly associated with IQ Intelligence II 93015 446 PM Definitions of intelligence 0 Last lecture o The ability to deal with complexity A capacity for understanding our surroundings A general ability to reason plan solve problems think abstractly learn quickly and learn from experience General cognitive ability 0 Today 0 The ability to adapt to shape and select environments Parallels with personality psychology 0 Many possible definitions of personality 0 Many possible definitions of intelligence 0 Personality is more than just traits 0 Intelligence is more than just g Traits are easy to study 0 G is easy to study Intelligence manifests itself differently in different cultures Intelligence is modifiable to some degree We just don t know how much 0 Throughout their lives some people will increase in their intelligence while others for many different reasons decrease in intelligence while others stay the same 0 The reasons are unknown 0 It might be a good idea to emphasize changeability not stability
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