Ethnography & Interviews
Ethnography & Interviews CJ 280
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Kisling on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 280 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Matthew Dolliver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Starts with a story Philo Farnsworth Young 14 year old kid living on a farm in Idaho Really smart thought about the idea of transmitting sound waves and wanted to use this concept with images He used his knowledge of farming plowing the eld one line at a time and transferred it to IMAGES transmitting the picture one line at a time He took this idea of little things pixals to form the larger picture The point of today Putting together these little pieces as many we can to nd the larger meaning Ethnography Puzzling it out Where we have been Last time we looked at two fundamental grounding points Qualitative Approach Naturalistic assumptions and Interpretive assumptions Grounded Theory It works that cycle of scienti c reasoning backwards Iterative process Theory from the data Where are we going We want to start today by looking at the Ethnography and eld research VVhatisit How does it work Strengths and weaknesses What we will see is that Puzzling it out Ethnography coming from anthropology Putting the whole story together Iterative process of putting the whole story together Naturalistic here often means It means that we actually have to go out into the eld and experience the culture the ethnicity as it actually exists in Viva in its natura setting He39d ResearCh the power of observation Complete participation Completely and thoroughly a participant you become completely and fully one of the people you are observing 9X the homeleSS if they want to observe the homeless they truly become homeless not going home at the end of the night sometimes for years so you can truly know the meaning and value of certain interactions Participantasobserver taking part being known Dominant status is that of the observer you take part as a participant but people will know who you are they know who you are they know you are there to observe them they understand that you are not one of them but you want to experience it They know who you are but the hope is eventually they begin to forget because you begin to blend in Observerasparticipant no effort to participate People will know why you are there and what you are doing but instead of getting involved you sit back and watch you won t intercede with your expertise you simply observe and take notes Complete observer Exactly what it sounds like No one knows who you are what you re doing or why you re there You are simply there to observe everything that is happening 9X To the Courts every courtroom is completely open to the courtroom so anyone can go in there and not explain why they are there Taking it all in Method of recording is the key to eld researcher Photographs and Video Why do we still take notes rather than catching it all on videopictures you miss the emotion and you miss things that happen before and after Interrater check of R Interrater reliability ex having other people watch a video to see if they got the same thing as the one who took it Tell the story Field Notes What We know v what we think Don t trust your memory don t intrude Write it dOWn alWayS EVer think you ll remember it later because you won t BUT be discrete Time it right so the participant doesn t become aware and beings to act a certain way Sketch them in stages In the eld get it ALL Then later you can trim it and edit it so it makes sense ll in a but more detail interpret it etc YOU don t know what s important record it all Reactivity v Flexibility in question You have the ability to just go with everything If they know you are an observer you can always just ask them to clarify why they do a certain thing and they will answer you A users guide Social desirability Straight up asking them can lead them to answering in a socially desirable way which is not accurate Ethnography v other methods EX seat bEItS asking teenagers if they wear seat belts they re going to say yes But if you go into the eld and blend in and become one of them you can being to see when they don t wear seat belts and why What this means for Validity is that EX ASking questions see seat belt example Interviews Going to the source Interviews give us the opportunity to see beyond the page Going beyond the application Google example How many marbles can you t in a school bus they didn t care about the answer they wanted your thought process they wanted to know how you got to where you got Breaking the problem down and looking at it piece by piece by piece It s how you get inside people s heads to understand how they think Last time we looked at Ethnography and eld research The role for the research The role of the eld observations Understanding people in viva Better for some questions than others However we found that there are tradeoffs in terms of both V and R Where are we going We want to turn today to a different type of method within the qualitative approach Interviews VVhatisit How does it work Strength and weakness What we will see is that interviews can have a number of different structures that combine depth and understanding and at times challenging some of the naturalistic methods Staying in control Qualitative InteFVieW Verba interaction between a researcher and participant that follows some type of plan Themes and Codes EX MaSCUImIty in the gang Before we look into this we need to research this and plan What de nes masculinity etc We can t go in blind Why Interview Going inside someone s head Increased control over what is known and what can be known Planning means we have to make deliberate decisions How do we want structure the interview How do we want the interview to look like Setting limits Structuring the interview Structured Q and A with a twist High level of control knows not only the questions but sometimes the answer Can provide the question and sometimes provides answer options This is dangerous because its funneling he answers to the participant Closing the ends providing people with only certain answers false dichotomy I can make sure I QEt With I think I m going to get But it doesn t allow a lot of exibility it doesn t allow a lot of room to get inside someone s head Semistructured begins with structure but then Maybe know certain topics I want to bring up but not so extreme that I know exactly what I m asking or the answers I m expecting leaving questions open and picking up on certain answers and rolling with them Unstructured not what it seems It s not entirely unplanned there is still a deliberate nature but you re allowing something to develop Deliberate portions Conversational let s have a Chat Interview guide setting limits on the topics Setting themes but also set boundaries for the topics ex Maybe we want to know why terrorists choose their targets but we don t want to deal with any sort to political conversation so we will deliberately steer away from that direction Need to be aware of how to ask questions and get answers Decisions decisions Key decisions Setting Where can they talk Make sure they are in an environment where they can actually talk they re not going to answer truthfully in certain settings This is where we challenge the naturalistic assumption we actually want them to talk so them being in their natural home may not be ideal or it may b9 you go to them InsiderOutsider status Developing a rapport yes and no We want them to feel comfortable enough with you where they will be more honest ex drug dealers and convict criminology How drug dealers recruit or recruit potential buyers etc Maybe the interviewer dealt when they were younger and they can make a connection with the participant The idea Of convict criminology using the experience of being a convict to build rapport Recording data Analysis Cleaning and COding increased exibility Two stage process Go through and clean up the interview Taking the video recordingaudio recording and transcribe it Transcribing is writing exactly what was said I ain t gonna do that is not that same as I m not going to do that This is important because then you can go back and code it Also create counts which puts a number on it which leads to statistics Themes have a different meaning here Where are we going We have introduced interview structures and methods Better suited to some questions then others Focuses on understanding and control Research must make many decisions From here we will continue looking at particular methodological stagiest We will begin by looking at the idea of the Historical research and we will introduce an important topic to research in general time
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