Week 7 ANT 102
Popular in Human Origins
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
How DNA provides the puzzle pieces A Two sources of DNA information 1 Mitochondrial DNA maternal inheritance from an organelle in the 2 3 cytoplasm which has its own DNA i mitochondria used to be a parasite and became a permanent parasite in our bodies we know this because it has its own DNA ii One chromosome in the shape of a loop Nuclear DNA paternal inheritance uses DNA from the Y chromosome What is used are the mutations in the noncoding quotjunkquot DNA look at readings on Reggienet for more information i The noncoding sections accumulate mutations just like any other area especially point mutations ii Because they don39t code for anything mutations accumulate from one generation to the next iii Base sequences can be mapped the differencessimilarities between individuals indicate relationship Uneage i Haplogroup haplotype some mutations can de ne a Hneage ii The human Ychromosome DNA lineage World DNA A Grandmother Africa and mother Asia 1 2 3 Neva Fossil data suggests that the rst modern humans are from Eastern Africa We started expanding the population into Western Asia about 90000 years ago Lost geography Sundaland i Makes incomplete map ii Loss to global warming possibly iii Used to be an entire land mass above Australia in Southern Asia but is now covered in water iv Because it is covered in water loss of fossils and such Coastal route to Americas through Asia Northern Asia sparsely inhabited Greater Australia Sahulland The Old Silk Road B Tracing people this gets messy 1 People move all the time I Probably because area being lived in is no longer hospitable ii Move to a new place and interbreed with aboriginals of that area leads to problems for us with DNA testing because we don39t know who was actually the aboriginal population everyone is a mutt iii Paleolithic migration modern humans iv Post ice age after 10000 years ago local population boom v Neolithic migration same route as modern humans rst farmers C Mother Asia 1 P P PP N 7 E Ab 1 2 3 South Asia cross road of DNA i Complex political history ii Cradle of civilization Indus Valley iii Caste system people segregated by social standing not allowed to marry outside of your caste iv Tribal people Y DNA broad East to West distinction I Recent boom in lndoEuro population ii Chinese agricultural boom Ainu l Deep haplotype ii Archaeological evidence for 12000 year East Asian existence Jomon culture Modern Japanese are a hybrid of Ainu and mainland Asia came from the Korean peninsula about 300 BC mtDNA distribution broad East to West distinction i Females probably descendants of local populations because young men are the ones who tend to go off and settle other lands India i Munda huntergatherer apparently aboriginal 60000 years back ii Dravidian almost as ancient as the Munda iii Some DNA suggests lndoEuropeans were indeed an in migration of West Asian peoples 20001000 BC iv Negritos have deep M and D haplotypesyes they are the aborigines of Southeast Asia also share with Australian aborigines Almost extinct v Short people well suited to tropical forests vi Andaman island Negritos the aborigines Taiwan i PreChinese Taiwanese most like modern Hawaiians Modern distribution i As land got covered in water people pushed into China population boom Problems with DNA testing Mutations only happen once They don39t back mutate Mutations are indeed quotjunk DNAquot Mutations occur at a regular frequency Generations are 20 years not necessarily true You can trace sequences but may not be able to date lineage separation without archaeological andor supportive evidence People have moved migrated invaded and become extinct original populations Most populations are genetically mutts 1000 BCmovement south environmental Degradation of the Sahara desert cattle and metallurgy 4 Bantu expansion Y chromosome i Recent population boom ii Oldest lineageBushman have been genetically isolated iii Pygmies also have old lineage DNA genetic isolation 5 Bantu expansion mtDNA i Less migratory movement than Ychromosome ii Relative genetic isolation of Bush iii North Africaback migration from west Asia 6 Both Ychromosome and mtDNA i Deepest roots in Africa most diversity ii Asiatic new mutations are parents for all nonAfrican people iii Bushman have the deepest lineage due to isolation iv Pygmies also have deep roots v Population boomBantu expansion this complicates reconstruction of African lineages
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