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Exam 2 prep!

by: Jenn Chang

Exam 2 prep! FSHD117

Jenn Chang
GPA 3.8
Family Studies and Human development
Dr. James Hunt

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Family Studies and Human development
Dr. James Hunt
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Chang on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSHD117 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. James Hunt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 10/01/15
Family Studies and Human Development 09242015 Objectives Should be able to discuss Hearing Vision Touch Taste Smell Sensation Stimulus input through our sensory nervous system ls felt smelled and seen Perception Our interpretation of what we sense how we make sense of the stimuli Ex how much pain you feel is perception ie pain is perceived and trauma is sensed Nature Vs Nurture l Constructionists Our understanding of the world and stimuli is constructed through learning and experience Nativists We do not create perception through interpretation We have innate programs and maturational processes that allow us to perceive Testing Infant Perceptual Abilities l Habituation Tendency of individuals to attenuate get used to a stimulus ie think about jewelry you feel like naked without it if you wear it everyday It kind of becomes a part of you Used to test infant ability to perceive Reduction in response to a stimuli after repeated exposure l Dishabituation Renewed interest in a previously boring stimulus ie Picking up an old game that you thought you used to be interesting got boring then got interested again Newborns habituate in virtually every stimulus modality but habituation grows more acute over 3 years Preferential looking The tendency of infants or individuals to prefer the appearance of one object over another ie Infants prefer to look at symmetrical faces Can be used to asses pattern recognition Evoked Potentials Use of physiological measures fMRl to test infant responses to stimuli We can see preferences to smell by looking at electrical activity that light up in a brain during fMRl We can test infant s pain threshold Visual Preferences of infants Robert Fantz 1963 discovered that infants look at different things for different lengths of time Found that infants preferred to look at patterns rather than at color or brightness Found that 2dayold infants looked longer at patterned stimuli than at singlecolored discs Pattern perception Lightdark transitions contours demark boundaries 3d instead of 2d the human face Depth Perception Most infants would not crawl out onto the glass choosing instead to remain on the shallow side indicating they could perceive death Size constancy The ability to recognize that an objects size doesn t change as a function of distance lndicates infant ability to perceive depth and distance Partially a function of the location of the human eyes in relation to the face We need to if things are getting thrown at us lnfants as young as 4 months seem to show an understanding of physical laws that govern objects nfants stare at events that seem to violate physical laws longer than those that end with expected outcomes l Smell and taste SMELL Newborns can differentiate odors Ex they like vanilla and strawberry not rotten eggs and fish Sensitivity to test may be present prior to birth 2 hour newborns made different facial expression when they tasted sweet sour and bitter solutions Olfactory abilities appear to be present at birth Refined abilities are indicated by preferences for their own mothers scent TASTE Varying facial expressions indicate infant preferences for certain tastes We can encourage preferences for avors TOUCH TEMPERATURE AND PAIN nfant touch develops in cephalocaudal pattern We are able to feel temperature and pain at early ages What ethical concerns do we face in testing these sensory modalities llNTERCROSSmodal perception The ability to relate and integrate information about two or more sensory modalities such as vision and headng lPerceptualMotor coupling and uni cation There is an increasing belief that perceptual and motor development don t occur in isolation from one another but rather are coupled ndividuas perceive in order to move and move in order to perceive De cits and Recovery It is important to stimulate our sensory receptors early in life In particular vision headng Attention The ability to focus our perceptions on a task Improvements in attention as we age such as Longer Span longer attention span Seective Attention what we want to pay attention to in order Systematic Attention picking and choosing Adolescent hearing Adolescence should be a time of optimal sensory perception across modalities Loud music may lead to TINNITUS A ringing sound in your ears from exposure to loud sounds Objectives To wrap up our discussion of perception To address understand and be able to provide examples of Piaget s stages of development To be able to express how egocentrism changes over time due to changes in cognition To discuss other aspects of cognition that change as we age To start discussion of Vgotsky s theory Vision and Age As we age Our pupils shrink letting less light through Slows our ability to adapt to low light Our lens become stiffer Limits our ability to focus especially on close stimuli Presbyopia Macular degeneration increases Blurs vision as we age Hearing and Age As we age Sensitivity to high pitches goes rst Currently technologies may exacerbate this louder stereos headphones etc Our ability to selectively listen to voices decrease can t pick out one voice from many Taste and Smell Our ability to distinguish ner tastes decrease as we age the use of salt as we age Odor sensitivity decrease over time We see rapid growth in sensory perception in early life As we age small declines occur over an extended period of time Our ability to make sense of the world is in uenced by early expedences our abilities to think solving problems or selfre ection Our ability to think about thinking our thoughts emotions or thoughts and emotions of others Piaget Termed his research According to Piaget we develop intelligence through our construction of reality we learn through experience everyone reacts differently Piaget s Keys Organization We systematically organize new information to t our emerging schema Adaption Adjusting to the demands of the environment and situation Assimilation Incorporating new information into their existing knowledge Accommodation Adapting one s existing knowledge to new information I Sensorimotor stage Birth 2 years Learning about the world physically manipulating the world Key term Object permanence ex peekaboo l Preoperational stage ages 27 representing the world mentally still have to do things physically within their head Key term AnotBerror and using symbols We use language and other symbols for representation of the world Lack of conservation mass mentally Reversibility changing back to original shape Centration vs decentration Centration Focuses too much on a problem that they forget to the other part Decentration Focusing too much on the little things to realize that they forgot to do the actual part Movement from static to transformational thought Egocentrism Concrete operational ages 711 making more sense Development of conservation Seriation Ability to organize thing in a particular ORDER Transivitiy I Formal operation 12 Making abstract thoughts being able to test hypothesis in our head verbal problemsolving ability increase tendency to think about thought itself thought is full of idealism and possibilities reason is more logical hypotheticaldeductive reasoning develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems such as algebraic equation l systematically conclude which is the best path to follow in solving the equanns Objectives To further understand the changes in thinking in adolescence and emerging adulthood To Discuss the changes in cognition in late life To understand criticisms of Piaget To introduce Vgotsky s Formal operations Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning A way of reasoning 1 Isolation of variables Systematically changing one variable while the others are held constant 2 Combinatorial reasoning To keep track of thinking about all possible combinations 3 Proportional reasoning Understanding how different variables are related to each other Propositional logic abstract imagined and complicated thinking as well as concrete and literal thinking proposed idea Difference between competence ie what the adolescent is capable of doing and performance what the adolescent actually does in the assessment situation Changes in cognition Monitoring one s own cognitive activity during the process of thinking Increased introspection selfconsciousness and intellectualization Adolescent egocentrism l imaginary audience and personal fable imaginary audience the idea that we think we know what people are talking about personal fable thinking that something won t happen to you ex a guy fell off a cliff and you think to yourself that it won t happen to you Is there a 5th postformal stage Post formal thought is qualitatively different than Piaget s formal operational though lnvolves understanding that 1 the correct answer to a problem requires re ective thinking 2 May vary from one situation to another 3 The search for truth is an ongoing neverending process 4 Solutions to problems need to be realistic Piaget39s view Piaget believed that young adults are most quantitatively advanced in their thinking in the sense that they have more knowledge than adolescents He also believed that adults especially increase their knowledge in a speci c area Other changes in cognition During the adolescence and young adulthood we see the emergence of 1 Thinking about possibilities Hold many possible outcomes in their mind at one time 2 Move easily between the speci c and the abstract and to generate multiple alternative possibilities 3 Development of deductive reasoning 4 The use of the hypothetical and perspective taking put yourself in the their shoes As we age we are better able to think about abstracts Ability to comprehend higherorder abstract logic including that used in puns proverbs metaphors puns and analogies This may be linked to the growth of social thinking social cognition ex the ability to take perspectives and understand social relationships Adolescents are also better able to think about more philosophical issues and more abstract concepts Thinking in multiple dimensions Understand that there is often more than one explanation to a problem things are more complex more differentiated view of the world We are better able to understand there are multiple perspectives in any given situation More sophisticated understanding of multiple probabilities Ability to understand when someone is being sarcastic also linked to perspective taking Relativism Ability to see things as relative rather than simply black and white skepticism Feelings of uncertainty or that no knowledge is completely reliable


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