Ento 2010 Week 9 Lecture Notes
Ento 2010 Week 9 Lecture Notes ENTO 2010
Popular in Insects & the Environment
Popular in Entomology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Ento 2010 Week 9 Notes March 14, 2016 o DUNG is a valuable food source o Elephant dung beetles: Many insects are attracted to dung Have specialized mouthparts Roll dung into balls Civet cats feed on dung beetle Produce civetone in anal gland o Is used in perfumes o Australia Cows were imported Insect couldn’t cope with dung Grassland was lost Solution: import dung beetles o Ancient Egypt: The scarab=a stone beetle Was the symbol of the soul Was also called the sun god Ra Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction o Spanish fly=blister beetle Produces a toxin: cantharidin Hippocrates used as medicine Marquis De Sade used as aphrodisiac Causes burning sensation in groin Destroys mucous linings in the body! o Acorn Weevil Female has a long snout (mouthparts) Drills hole in acorn with snout Then, oviposits in this hole Lays one egg per acorn o Whirligig beetle Is a scavenger Has divided eyes so it can see above and below water Spins in circles to create waves that bounce back when they hit food item Carries air bubble to breathe underwater March 16, 2016 o Order: Lepidoptera Lepido=scale Ptera=wings Common name: butterflies & moths Species=200,000 o Lepidoptera Complete metamorphosis Siphoning mouthparts Wings have scales Scales=modified hairs Larvae feed on plants Larvae spin silk Greatest color variation Major agricultural pest o Butterfly Greek=psyche French=papillon o Entomology: study of insects o Etymology: study of words o Morpho butterfly Morpho=beautiful or well-made Upper wings are iridescent blue Lower wings are plain brown o Lepidoptera larvae Are leaf eating machines Must molt 4-5 times Have soft cuticle Need defense: Camouflage Warning coloration Toxic spines o Lepidoptera adults Feed to get flight fuel Mate abdomen to abdomen Female lays eggs in host plant o Butterflies=20,000 species o Moths=180,000 species o Dan Janzen: Identify all the moths of Costa Rica Rear larvae to adults then identify Use light screen at night to collect adults Moth scales can cause allergies How big should a biodiversity park be? o Florida Queen butterfly Looks similar to viceroy Finds mate with sex pheromone Male and female do courtship dance Male uses “hair pencils” to dust female with pheromone o Monarchs: Larvae feed on milkweed Sequester toxic alkaloids (cardenolides) Predators leave larvae and adults alone Fall: 4 generation adults Migrate 2,500 miles to Mexico Winter: dormant in Mexican forests Spring: mate and return to U.S. o Mexican holiday Return of the monarch butterflies Represents the return of the souls of people who died during the year March 18, 2016 o Insect plant interactions Coevolutionary arms race Plant produces toxin Insect adapts to toxin Plant makes more powerful toxin o Plant defense against herbivores Silicon oxide in leaves Like eating glass Proteinase inhibitors Animal can’t digest food Secondary plant products Toxic compounds o Plant surface has hairs=trichomes May produce toxins May be sticky May be spines or hooks o When plant is wounded it wants to: Limit water loss Prevent fungal/bacterial infection Deter herbivory o When a plant is wounded it may: Wound-heal to give a “scab” Produce toxic chemicals Exude sap or gum Form a gall (with insect inside) o Jurassic Park Fossilized plant resin=amber-gem DNA found in fossil insects Sequence fossil DNA Determine relatedness of insect species Recover dinosaur blood (DNA) from fossil mosquito o Carnivorous plants: Habitat low in nutrients Digest protein of prey Have modified structure to catch insects o Carnivorous plants Sundews Venus fly trap Bladderworts Pitcher Plants o Sundews Bright colors attract insects Leaf tentacles have sticky glue Electrical signal causes leaf to curl Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey o Venus fly trap Has trigger hairs inside leaf Touching hairs causes electrical signals 2 signals cause rapid growth of outer leaf leaf closes on insect; Venus fly trap digests it only found in wetlands of North Carolina and South Carolina o Bladderworts Are aquatic Have a bladder with a trap door When prey item hitsthrigger hair, it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000 of a second! o Pitcher plants Flower-like: nectar and color attract insects Inside: downward pointing hairs and loose wax Insects fall into “pool” and are digested
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