Sociology 1101 Ch 6 and Lec Week #6
Sociology 1101 Ch 6 and Lec Week #6 Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology) at Ohio State University taught by Steven Lopez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Sociology Ch 6 92915 Social Control and Deviance What is Social Deviance behavior that violates social norms in a given society or group Vary from society to society Very few behaviors are universally deviances It s NOT always negative eg civil rights movement minor violations of rules that most people follow ex picking your nose crime violation of laws enacted by society ex murder Punishments may vary based on the context ex soldier killing an enemy heroic soldier killing his wife heinous and punishable by long prison sentence techniques and strategies for preventing deviant behavior penalties and rewards for conduct related to social norm Two types 1 Social Sanctions rules or laws prohibiting deviant criminal behavior eg murder rape theft etc 2 Social Sanctions usually unexpressed but widely known rules of the group eg belching loudly in public answering phone in lecture etc Can be informally enforced by quotthe eyes and ears of the street meaning that enforcing social norms and control is implicitly woven into daily life negative images that devalue members of social groups Lead to behavior being labeled as deviant Also the opposite of positive images that increase value members of society eg the Saints and the Roughnecks who was stigmatized and given prestige Conformity and Obedience Conformity is powerful and pervasive Obedience to authority is the think back to Milgram experiment which ordinary people go into this default mode in response to commands from authority figures Both necessary society to function Punishments in modern society usually the death penalty for extreme violations NOTE still legal in many US states circumstantially triggered crimes such as stealing to support a drug addiction may result in punishment of courtordered rehab in hopes of reintegrating the criminal into the productive mainstream attempting to restore the status quo that existed prior to an offense or event Ex Tort law using payment to reestablish social equilibrium to make up for what was lost ex company that causes accidental death of a loved one because of something preventable is sued and pays money to the family for emotional damages Both are found in societies but one form usually is more common than the other Social Forces and Deviance Functionalist aka quotmeansend theory of deviance deviance occurs when a society does not give all members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals People don t match up to the expectations goals of society accepts both the goals and strategies to achieve those goals that are considered socially acceptable eg going to college and then working hard to achieve the quotAmerican dream of getting a big house a few kids and a nice car person who rejects socially defined goals but not the means of meeting their personal goals eg going to college but to just barely get by and not wanting to reach the quotAmerican dream person who accepts the socially acceptable goals but rejects the means of achieving those goals eg selling drugs to get rich instead of working hard person who rejects both the means and the goals of society by not participating in society eg moving off into the woods and not participating rejects both traditional means and goals but also wants to changedestroy the social institution from which heshe is alienated eg physically fighting against government rather than formally proposing new legislation Main Theories Overview 1 basically lack of attachment amp break down of norms 9 deviance a 1910sThere was a decline in social organization relative to rural 2 a a b c d 3 and old country There was a lack of attachment bonds commitment and values to families communities and the country lead to more deviance Chicago school soon observes that it is NOT an adequate explanation because people make NEW BONDS quickly Relevant to quotInside Job People were more attached within the financial sector rather than to their country s economy basicaly legitimate goals being pursued by nonlegit means defined normlessness as a breakdown of norms Typical of societies experiencing rapid change alters the definition to fit stable situations quotAnomie arises where there is a discrepancy between socially defined goals and available means of achieving them Relevant to quotInside Job Disclosing financial conflicts of interest a NEEDEXPECTATION but not practiced as a norm bc of outside goals basicaly being socialized to be deviant through subculture Deviant behavior is learned through differential association eg who your friends are intensity of contacts age when contact occurs frequency duration number People may be socialized into a deviant subculture eg gang culture Relevant to quotInside Job Wall Street has a quotthrillseeking mentality drug sex and money all stimulate the same part of the brain creates a culture Money and luxuries trained people to fall into this culture and convincing nonbusiness people into the industry to allow easier control over them 4 a b quotSocial construct of deviance Important sorting goes on between initial act and punishment An act becomes deviant when the LABEL of deviance is successfully applied it s only deviant if people care enough to label it as deviant Stages of labeling i Initial act occurs ii Definition of the act is applied because of societal concern iii Deviant identity is taken on as a primary role it s conferred on people at least as much as it results from their actions It s sociallyconstructed do people agree enough to apply it e Relevance to quotInside Job Have bankers been successfully labeled deviant NOPE These members are still regarded as upstanding members and incredible businessmen 5 a Even when there is broad agreement about conduct violating social norms or laws the powerful are treated differently i Less likely to be criticized investigated or prosecuted ii If prosecuted sentences are often more lenient than for less powerful people b Relevance to quotInside Job How have the bankers avoided punishment i the occupational prestige that comes with any economic profession allows them to have power and society assume that they are crimeless Especially when compared with normal people on the street corner ii Wall street makes huge contributions to both parties and don t want to prosecute these powerful execs and have their money flow cut off The financial sector makes nearly 40 of US profits tons of economic power What s missingunexplained by these theories The of deviance and fraud The financial sector deviance was systematic and highly organized not individual based Organizations pursued business models that were deviant with respect to cultural mores and laws so they were more serious levels of deviance Sociology tends to study quotdown focusing on deviance of the less powerful crime is quotstreet crime Also they assume crime is more of an individual than organizational behavior Functionalist approach to Deviance and Social Control Ilf society body and organs then the state brain 9 decision and rulemaking center t s the state s job to help organize and direct social life The Division of Labor in Society the way people form social bonds relate to each other and get along on a daytoday basis Deviance is necessary because it policies the boundaries of social behavior promotes social stability Two basic ways society can hold togethercohere 1 based on the sameness of the individual parts People who have similar characteristics group together ex all tribe members all car builders all Caucasian etc Characterizes premodern society 2 social cohesion based on interdependence of the members because each is specialized and all of the members working smoothly together to ensure society functions well as a whole Characterizes modern society 9 greater efficiency in society BUT people are more alienated from one another because they have less and less in common making social bonds more difficult to form according the functionalist offending the meaning the set of common assumptions about how the world works social norms Deviance is punished restore quotmoral unity aka collective conscience so that chaos doesn t ensue Durkheim says that deviance occurs because of sudden social changes that lead to feelings of helplessness In order to realign the social order collective vengeance is taken out on the criminal by the community for the act of offending the collective conscience Paradox because it reinforces norms SuicideDurkheim believes suicide at its root is an instant of social deviance developed the hypothesis that the social norms of a particular group generate variations in group suicide rates By plotting the degree to which a person is a part of the society on the yaxis and plotting how many rules guide on a daily basis on the x axis you can theorize about how social forces influence suicide rates Altruistic suicide too much integration Regulation Fatalistic I suicide 039 1911181151 too much Cat a 0 g regulation 3 a on CD 0 S Egoistic suicide not enough integration Reasonably integrated reasonable guidelines low risk of suicidedeviant behavior Too much or too little in either direction results in increased deviance Four types of suicide 1 one isn t well integrated into the group feel insignificant to group Ex Protestants have a high rate of this type bc of the lack of a formal church hierarchy to create a community bonding 2 one experiences too much social integration feel meaningless WITHOUT the group Ex Japanese ritual suicide samurai warriors commit suicide if they fail their groups in battle to avoid community disgrace 3 one experiences too little social regulation which leads to a sense of aimlessness despair or learned helplessness because can t expect life to be more or less meaningful Ex Businessmen jumped from skyscrapers because of the stock market crash in 1929 broken connection between hard work and expecting just rewards led to suicide Ex Poor man wins lottery suddenly his behavioral template is completely changed can t cope with the new changes 4 one experiences too much social regulation Monotony of everyday life with no variation or surprises with nothing to look forward to Ex Prisoners and slaves commit suicide resulting from suffocating monotony Group solidarity can trickle down to the individual levels and stave off suicide rates Functionaist theories macro theories generalizable trends more broad symbolic theories micro theories zoom in on the individual Symbolic lnteractionist Theories of Deviance Symbolic interactionists focus on how deviance is learned from associates and through social networks reflects symbolic messages about neighborhoods and social groups and is created by stereotypes and imagesstigmas of social groups individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them and their reaction to those labels over time form the basis of their selfidentity It is through this social process that we create deviance by assigning shared meanings to acts Wrongdoers are made as a consequence of how other people apply rules amp sanctions argued that social groups create deviance first by setting rules for what is right and wrong and second by labeling rule breakers Deviant labels are believed to stick under any circumstances leads to more deviance the first act of rule breaking that may lead to deviant label and thus influence how people think about and act towards you subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after the primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people s expectations of you Psychiatric study normal patients sent to psychiatric institutions for schizophrenia once admitted they didn t change their behavior but the staff had different perceptions of their behavior simply because of the label of being schizophrenic Marijuana study it s a social event you must learn the highs and feelings and how to feel and act in an appropriate way according to the groups standards Explains how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly specifically whether local informal social norms allow deviant acts 1976 left one car in the Bronx and one in a rich California neighborhood The one in the Bronx was immediately ransacked and the one in the rich neighborhood wasn t ransacked until after its windows and hood were smashed The smasheddecay setting signaled that the abandoned car was fair game for abuse Conflict Perspective Deviance reflects the interests of powerful individuals and groups Members of powerless groups more likely to receive negative sanctions and sanctions more severe for the same behavior than more powerfulless stigmatized groups the different treatment of misbehavior and deviance based on social standing Crime a more formal sort of deviance that is not only subject to social sanction but also punishable by law There is a range in the type and degree crime committed publically Usually associated with gangs disadvantaged minority groups and poverty There are different theories as to why street crime exists 1 Street crime rises and falls in relation to the amount of opportunity wn a legitimate economy and illegitimate economy Cloward and Ohlin 1960 Reduce crime by raising the costs in the illegitimate economy eg making a quotthree strikes law to deter repeat criminal offenders and to incarcerate habitual offenders Reduce crime by raising opportunity in the legit economy with entrylevel positions eg raising minimum wages usually committed by professionals against a corporation agency or other professional entities offenses committed by officers CEOs and other execs of a corporation IWhite collar costs the US nearly 300 billion each year Street crime only 155 million but we tend to focus more on the street crimes Ex Justice department settlements with the nation s biggest banks to resolve allegations of fraud related to the 2008 financial crisis Totaling near 40 billion in settlements Many banks didn t admit to fault but paid the settlements to get the justice apartment to go away Criticism the banks get away with huge payoffs and no one gets prosecuted and goes to jail Epidemic of white collar crime the runup to the financial collapse and recession of 2008 was characterized by widespread fraud by the biggest US financial institutions and largescale fraud and corruption by mortgage brokers lenders loan services investment banks rating agencies academic economists and government regulators nterpreting Crime Wayward Puritans demonstrated how even America s most upstanding Godfearing communities still had problems with deviance His central thesis was that a relatively stable amount of deviance is to be expected but what counts as deviance evolves depending on the society Overall crime rates do not accurately show the rates of crime in a society because people do not always report crimes the classifications of crime often change etc So criminologists usually use the murder rate to make statements about the overall health of a society can t fake it Word of caution though survival rates of violent crimes are much higher now so even the murder rates can be inaccurate if they don t account for quotalmost murders Crime Reduction philosophy of criminal justice arising from the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits So if you make the cost of being deviant outweigh the benefit of being normal then you deter the criminal acts targeting and monitoring known criminals to prevent more crime making the consequences of an action well known to deter the crime when an individual who had been involved in the criminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior once released Usually occurs because the criminals have a lack ofjob stability home security and lack of strong social bonds when they are released revert back to old habits that make ends meet Also by cracking down on crime more technical slipups under the strict standards which makes it very hard for the criminal to recover and return as a functioning member of society interactionist these are places where all aspects are conducted in the same place and under the same authority Goffman theorized that these institutions eg prisons and mental health hospitals are often breeding grounds for secondary deviance People who enter the institution lose their sense of self and become helpless Guardsauthority also feel the need to play a new role that will get respect and obedience from the inmatespatients Modern penal system the system represents a transformation in social control focusing on correcting the individual s characteristicsbehaviors a circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve as a prison in which the guards housed in the inner ring can observe the detainees in the outer ring without them knowing whether they re being watched US Justice System More people are incarcerated at an alarmingly increasing rate Nearly 6 of Whites 10 of Hispanics and 12 of African Americans are expected to be incarcerated at some point in their life time In terms of penal executions race is a huge factor in terms of the victim and the criminal and influences if they will be given the death penalty for equal crimes Video Inside Job Overview Focuses on elite deviance criminality and corruption in the Wall Streetdriven housing bubble and 2008 financial crisis and its ongoing consequences Shows how fraudulent and corrupt practices inflated the housing bubble from 2002 2007 Explores the global consequences for ordinary people as well as for those responsible Key concepts Financia sector n 1930s banking reforms Great Depression including Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation gov will ensure your money in the bank even if the bank runs out of money lightly regulated can take big risks not covered by FDIC heavily regulated required to avoid big risks covered by FDIC Made a differentiation between investment and depository institutions I Securities and Exchange Commission alowed investigation by government to keep up with companies and prevent issues In the 1980s Savings amp Loans become deregulated leads to crisis of the late 80s Using savings and loans to make crazy investments and caused huge failure and money loss leads to imprisonment of some big investors due to fraud In the 1990s GlassSteagall weakened then repealed 9 leads to merging of banks and investing companies leading to huge groups doing both investments and deposits SEC enforcement weakened ncreasing financial sector innovation eg derivatives pressure on the investors to make shortterm money for themselves and the companies Old days house buying works in this chain High standards of who they will lend to new way of buying houses loans bundled together and sold to investors Bundles called quotCollateralized Debt Obligation CDO Changes the chain of who you buy from Mortgage broker connect borrower to the lender9 initial lender doesn t keep the mortgage9 investment banks eg Goldman Sachs Citigroups9changes the mortgage into a CD09 Rating agency eg Standard and Poor label the investments as safe or poor slices the CD0 into separate risk groups and then repeats the slicing again Investors individuals or institutions like pension funds buy those CDOs 9 who s holding the bag when the mortgage defaults THE INVESTORS LIKE YOU AND ME The investors lost the money and the middlemen won bc they got their fees and then handed the bad deals ticking time bombs down the chain basically a bet on the performance of some underlying asset like a mortgagebacked CDO but it can be anything of derivative you don t have to be involved in the asset to create and sell a derivative or to invest in the derivative Investment opportunities are limited by the actual of mortgages investments for them are unlimited multiplies the effects of loss Firms can invest with money they have andor money they have borrowed Borrowing makes it possible to make much larger bets If you re leveraged 33to1 it means you re playing with nearly all borrowed money In this case a 3 decline in the value of your assets would render you insolvent unable to repay your debts
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