HIST 150 week 6
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
HIST 150 Week 6 Notes 0929 amp 1001 Still Christianity c There were different categories of people in the time of Christianity Sadducees Essenes Zealots and Pharisees 1 Sadducees did not believe in personal immortality or an afterlife Essenes were Jews who lived in the desert and were looking for a peaceful savior Zealots were Jews who thought that the savior was going to someone like David who would free them from the Roman rule and reconquer Palestine Pharisees were divided into several different parts but they all agreed that the Torah needed to be interpreted the Torah was later added onto and it was called the Talmud Rabbis taught about the Talmud Rabbi Hillel taught that the summary of the law was to love God and to love others Philo Judaeus was a Rabbi who was highly in uenced by Plato s teachings and said that Plato could in uence Jews for the good Josephus was a Jewish historian who wrote a GreekRoman history of Judaism he wrote that Christians were around during the 60s CE d There were many different writings for the Christian religion 1 The Synoptic Gospels are Mark Matthew and Luke Mark was the first to be written focusing on genealogy and was written in Aramaic Matthew was written second using Mark s rendition and another source known as the gospel Q quelle Luke s gospel used the same sources as Matthew along with some similar phrases such as Son of Man and Kingdom of Heaven 2 The Gospel of John was written last along with the Letters of John and the book of Revelation around 100 CE these were called J ohannine Literature they spoke about God as love and that Jesus was logos the word because language and justice are what makes us human e Christianity caused many problems arise for the Romans 1 There was an option for the salvation of the poor sermon on the mount in a society where being rich was one of the most important things this was a big issue 2 It was said that it was difficult for a rich man to enter heaven 3 Romans didn t know if these new beliefs and traditions of the Christians would remain faithful to Rome so they forced Christians to burn incense to the genius of the emperor of Rome if they didn t they were imprisoned if they didn t again they were tortured and if a third time they were killed f Gnostics were a heretical sect of Christianity who denied the humanity and death of Jesus 1 They believed that the body was given to us as a prison possibly by Satan and the soul is the image of God 2 They also had the Gospels of Mary Magdalene Thomas and Judas Iscariot 3 Mary Magdalene Thomas and Judas were also said to be the three main disciples of Jesus g Pauline tradition was the spread of Christianity through the writings of the disciple Paul 1 He was Saul of Tarsus a merchant citizen of Rome was a Pharisee who converted to Christianity 2 His writings re ect that Jesus was fully God and fully human 3 He also discussed how Jesus three main apostles were Peter James and John IV Christians in Rome The Fall of Rome a Emperor Diocletian used the Christians as scapegoats for the stag ation economic depression and in ation the Germanic tribes who were being chased into Rome and the civil wars among generals who wanted to become emperor b One general who won the empire title was Constantine whose mother St Helena was a Christian Constantine was baptized a Christian on his deathbed 1 In 313 he issues the Edict of Toleration which allows people to worship the old gods along with Christians to worship God which means that they didn t have to burn incense to the genius of the emperor 2 He pulled nearly all Roman troops out of the West England France Spain Italy to protect the rich part of the empire Egypt Greece Asia Minor and built a new capitol city called IstanbulConstantinople 3 He called together the Council of Nicaea which is where the Nicene Creed comes from where the bishops and patriarchs put together the main beliefs of Christians The Greek version of the creed said that the Holy Spirit descended only from the Father not through Jesus this is what all the Orthodox Christians believed The Latin version is what Roman Catholics and Protestants believe that the Spirit descended from both the Father and Jesus One sect called Pelagians believed that since God was allloving that he would not condemn people to hell forever and that everyone ended up with him in heaven heresy Another sect called Arians denied Jesus equal to God and the Spirit that He was the Word but he was not God heresy c In 390 Theodosius declared Christianity the official religion of Rome 1 Because the emperor was Christian all the Roman officials became Christian to suck up to him and get on his good side 2 Bishops and patriarchs became rich because all the rich officials were tithing d St Augustine was a Christian from North Africa who converted to Christianity and became a bishop 1 He wrote The Confessions and City of God which stressed how close Plato and Porphyry were to the truth of Christianity 2 He preached that reason and faith ere possible to eXist together and that the differences in the two creation stories are allegorical not literal V The Fall of Rome a Germanic tribes Visigoths to Spain Ostrogoths Franks to France Angles to England and Saxons were being chased by the Xiongnu or the Huns into the Roman empire through the 300s and 400s CE 1 There was an emperor in the West in Constantinople and a Vice emperor in the west one of these Vice emperors was named Remus Augustulus but he was chased out by Odoacer the Ostrogoth a warlord 2 The Byzantine empire continued for a long time after the fall of Rome women were allowed to be empresses such as Theodora who coruled with her husband Justinian Islam I Basic background information a The Arabian Peninsula was not part of the Roman empire but they were close trade partners the City of Petra in Jordan was a big trading hub between Africa Arabia and Rome b The two main cities were Mecca and Medina Medina had the Kaaba a wall built around a rock that fell from heaven II Allah Muhammed and the Koran a Muslims are the descendants of Abraham and Haggai whose son was Ishmael b Allah means the god he has three daughters Allat moon Manat morning star AlUzza evening star c Muhammed 570632 CE was born to a poor family that branched off of a rich family and an arranged marriage between he and a woman named Khadija from a rich family who bore his favorite daughter named Fatima 1 They both interpreted and taught the Koran 2 Women during this time were allowed to own property and worked like men however only men were allowed to have more than one sexual partner d The Koran is the holy writing of Islam it speaks of Jesus as a great prophet and that his followers misunderstood His teachings