Lectures 9 & 10
Lectures 9 & 10 GC 170A
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gigi on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GC 170A at University of Arizona taught by E. Bigio in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO GLOBAL CHANGE in Global Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Lecture 9 Energy Budget P2 amp Phase Changes Convection in Atmosphere 1 Air warmed at surface warm air holds a lot of water vapor 2 Arm becomes less dense and rises 3 Cooler Air sinks and replaces it 4 Condensation occurs and heat is released to the upper atmosphere causing clouds to form Sensible Heat Temperature of substance that we can feel Warmerfaster movement Solids Heat generated by vibration of molecules in the structure Liquids Heat generated by the movement of molecules in the substance Phase Change Transition between the state of a substance 0 Extra energy is absorbed or released from the environment 0 Transition from solid to liquid or gas energy absorbed 0 Transition from gas to liquid or solid energy released Molecules in a gas move faster so they need extra energy to transition 0 When a liquid or solid forms molecules become closer together Latent Heat Energy Energy that is absorbed or released from the environment during a phase change A Substance is Warming Energy is absorbed from environment making the surrounding environment cooler Evaporation Latent energy causes the transition from liquid water to vapor and removes energy from environment making it cooler swamp coolers Ex placing lakes in the desert there is now more latent energymore evaporation and lower heat cooler environment A Substance is Cooling Energy is released to the environment during a phase change and the surrounding environment gets warmer Condensann As water vapor transitions to water the molecules slow down and heat energy is released to environment Lecture 10 Atmosphere amp Ocean Circulation How could we reduce the amount of long wave radiated back towards the surface Covering glaciers in Switzerland helps prevent ice from melting Weather The state of the atmosphere at given place or time Rainstorms Tornadoes Blizzards Temperature Weather patterns in the troposphere relate to energy distribution global heat transfer from the equator towards the poles Climate The long term average of weather Climate Change Long term changes 100 years in the regional up to the global climate The Global Energy Distribution 1 Incoming shortwave radiation is greater at the equator 2 Outgoing long wave radiation is also greater but to a lesser degree Why is more incoming solar radiation absorbed at the equator 1 There is a greater ux of solar energy vertical piece of paper at the equator 2 The poles absorb less ux angled piece of paper What in uences the variability in surface air temperature 1 Variability in greenhouse gases at surface 2Variation in earth s re ectivitv and cloud cover albedo 3 Amount of outgoing long wave radiation leaving the atmosphere 4 Width of the atmospheric window Surplus of Energy Constantly being transferred toward the poles to ll the de cit of energy Without the global energy transfer The equator would be unbearably hot and poles would be unbearably cold Global Heat Transfer happens through Atmospheric Circulation amp Ocean Circulation Ocean Currents Examples Cod paci c current of the coast of California brings cold water away from the poles Gulf Stream brings warm water north from equator Atmospheric Convection Process of global heat transfer around the earth surface Warm air rises amp holds a lot of water vapor Air cools as it rises Hadley Ce Circulation Large convection cells in the atmosphere 1 Warm air rises near equator convection and uplift 2 Water vapor condenses in the upper atmosphere releases heat 3 Warm air moves toward the poles cooling as it moves northward 4 Cool air sinks at 30 degrees NS latitude subsidence Convergence Areas of convection and uplift cause low pressure surface winds move towards low pressure Winds ow together at the surface Explains ntertropica Convergence Zone Divergence Areas of cold air sinking cause high pressure amp deserts surface winds ow away from high pressure Winds ow apart at the surface Explains deserts Cool air sinks and prevents condensation and cloud formation at 30 N and S latitude so the environment becomes very dry Polar Front Zone Where cold and warm air meets converging zone in the mid latitudes Responsible for much of weather in N America Jet Stream Current of strong upper level winds moving west to east What warmer temps does to the Jet Stream 1 Poles are warming 2 Less of a temperature gradient between poles and equator 3 Jet stream becomes wavier 4 Moves slower so weather patterns become more persistent California drought Ocean Circulation The pattern of gyres are driven by surface winds and coriolis effect Gyres The surface ocean currents Cockwise in N hemisphere Countercockwise in S hemisphere Warm water is moved away from equator and cold water is moved away from the poles Surface Winds Create friction with the ocean Wind drags or pushes the ocean ln uences the direction of surface currents Coriolis Effect De ects the direction of surface current to Right N hemisphere Left S hemisphere
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