End of section 1 for Test 2
End of section 1 for Test 2 PSYC 370
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ronni Cox on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 370 at Kansas taught by Nancy Hamilton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
From the macro to the micro 0 Proliferation and differentiation how do all of the structures in our bodies develop from a single cell 0 Chemical signals 0 Gene expression 0 Migration and aggregation how do cells know Where to go and form functional groups e g the dorsal stream ventral stream Neural development and organization step by step 0 Development from inside out 0 Steps in development process 0 l Mitosis cells must reproduce o 2 Migration cells must move from their original location to the site Where they are needed 0 3 Aggregation cells must develop functioning working groups e g dorsal and ventral streams o 4 Formation of axons A r A I HEquot My u h quotltecwlvb 39 i i formwf5 6 1 GramquotS M gt J Mitosis proliferation o Mitosis proliferation o Neural tube is foundation of brain I Walls become the cortex of the brain I Hollow core becomes the ventricles far superior labour Howl 39 3 quot I J I 173m 39 m J ventral dorsal gt F a f quotmmquot machu quot A orsolateral ventrolateral from back and ham l quotram tron and I dn l c I l l in I A L r 4 39 inferior melon mm 0 Stem cells I Walls are formed by stem cells I Stem cells near the center of the neural tube replicateproliferate mitosis rapid reproduction of a cell part or organism and differentiate into neurons and glial cells 0 They replicate like rabbits NEWG TEM 90C AL NET WORVANC UQEQ 223355le A 0 4 39quot3 i l r M Jam p u talk 2334 727234 N e c 32 quot g 0 Q Migration thickening and forming the superhighway 0 Neocortical development 0 Migration I Radical migration is the predominant mechanism for thickening the neural tube and creates an inside out pattern of development Cells follow radial glial cells I Tangential migration moves cell bodies across long distances in the neural tube Tangential migration is like a long distance runner The Cell bodies are the runners and the neural tube is like the track I Migration is orderly and planful guided by chemical signals Aggregation 0 Cells bodies that migrate to the same area need a way to bind together and communicate Think of people coming together for one cause 0 This is a prelude to forming synapses o Mechanisms o Celladhesion molecules CAMs beaconshoming signals I Located on the surface of neurons and other cells I CAMs recognize other cells and attract one cell to another I Aid both migration and aggregation o I think of a camera The camera is on the top of building looking around The attraction part I think of a porno I m weird I know You can see the ATTRACTION between people from the CAMERA o On the cell is a sensor and communicate with that while migrating o Gap junctions pass cytoplasm between cells communication between cells I Set up working relationships form working groups I Prevalent in brain development I May play a role in aggregation and other processes Axons and circuit formation 0 Once cell bodies have gotten to their destination migration and working groups have formed aggregation neuron cell bodies sprout axons and dendrites that grow toward targets BLOOMING IDIOT X ti m iii 0151 A cull y I aquot a 0 0 a D60 L J p 0394 3 W f I v l iv v M W y i d ll lirIyIiVjili39J v i 1 quotquotquotV quot 7 rr391 Lr 0 Growth cones found at tips of axons and dendrites search for a correct route 0 How do axons form circuits 0 Axons grow towards a chemical signal chemoaffinity 0 But follow a specific pathway roadmap to get there which might or might not be a dire mm quot E335 my v ms z a ct route o I Pioneer growth cones follow guidance molecules along the pathway 0 Pioneers are the first to go 39 Subsequent growth cones follow paths established by the pioneer growth cones 0 Subsequent following or comes after They go after the pioneer growth cones I Neurons travelling to the same region travel together Meaning that they maintain the same topographic relationship to their fellow travelers from their point of origin to the destination Neoxf39OV i wdaaew x SkQ o 6amp f Synaptogenesis forming synapses between neurons 0 Once an axon projects to another area of the brain how are synapses formed 0 Coordinated effort between 2 or more neurons 0 Depends on the presence of glial cells especially astrocytes cholesterol 0 Chemical signal exchanged between pre and postsynaptic neurons 0 Promiscuity followed by pruning and rearrangement o 50 more neurons than are needed are produced death is normal 39 SurViVing neurons 0 Form synapses with many neurons 0 Neurotrophins support functional connections 0 E g fire in synchrony with other synapses I Neurons that are pruned 0 Form few synapses o Synapses nonfunctional and not supported by neurotrophins 0 Don t re in synchrony with other synapses o Rearrangement elimination of nonfunctional connections makes room to form more functional connections Take home messages 0 The lobes of the brain obscure tracts of neurons that integrate information in speci c ways that enable us to perform complex tasks 0 Those tracts of neurons were laid down during prenatal development