Chapter 7 (part2)- Learning, Chapter 1- Stress and Health
Chapter 7 (part2)- Learning, Chapter 1- Stress and Health PSYC 1101 B
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nathalie mautes on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 B at Georgia Regents University taught by jane hodges in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia Regents University.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Chapter 7 Learning (Part 2) & Chapter 11- Stress and Health Chapter 7 Learning (Part 2) 3 Reinforcement Styles: Shaping: this involves taking steps to shaping someone or something to the target behavior. For example, people can shape their dogs to throw trash away in the garbage. Continuous reinforcement: every time someone or something does what their told they get rewarded. Ex: If the dog successfully puts the trash in the garbage the dog gets rewarded. Continuous Partial: Includes different patterns or schedule of receiving a reward. This can be broken down into patterns such as: Intervals in terms of time: 1) Fixed intervals- meaning there is a specific time the reinforcement or reward occurs. 2) Variable intervals- meaning the time changes or varies for reinforcement/reward. Ratios in terms of numbers: 1) Fixed ratio- meaning there is set or specific amount of rewards given. 2) Variable ratio- meaning the amount of reward that is given changes. Punishment: the goal is to stop or just weaken the behavior, which comes in 2 forms: Positive: The goal of positive punishment is to prevent the behavior from happening again. For example: A no parking sign can prevent someone for getting a ticket so they don’t park there. Negative: The goal of negative punishment is to stop the behavior. For example, the dreadful process of your car being towed can cause people to never park illegally again. Cognitive learning is acquiring new behaviors and information mentally not from the environment Latent learning was proposed by Edward Toleman saying that you learn later with the act of reinforcement or reward. Chapter 11 Stress and Health Health psychology- deals with attitudes, behaviors, and how we respond to stress. Stress is the way we appraise/interpret and respond to evens that we see as threatening. 3 types of stress Catastrophic: when everything you have is gone such as natural disasters Major life events are things that individually changes your life such as a new job Daily hassles are events that don’t make dramatic changes to your life causing stress such as traffic. 2 types of stress 1) Brief Stress– Stress that last briefly/ temporarily Ex: taking test -The process starts in the hypothalamus then sympathetic nervous system, finally the adrenal gland releases adrenaline from the adrenal medulla (HSAM) -It can cause in heart beat and blood pressure and digestion/salivation slows down 2) Prolonged Stress- Stress that lasts for a long time Ex: school - The process starts in the hypothalamus then the pituitary gland then releases ACTH(stress hormone), sends message to adrenal gland where the adrenal cortex releases corticosteroids - Causes blood vessels to inflame which can result in heart damage, and decreases the immune system. Hans Seyle- idea was the general adoption syndrome which come in 3 phases Alarm- process when the stress hormones are released Resistance- When the hormones are constantly being activated Exhaustion- the point you get sick or ill Telomeres- ends of chromosomes acts as a covering and with stress it can break them down causing people to age faster Psychoneuroimmunology- study of how psychological neural and endocrine (hormone) factors effect health or immune system such as psychophysiological illnesses which are real illnesses cause by psychological factors Ex: stress can cause blood pressure IMMUNE SYSTEM B- lymphocytes: fight bacterial infections such as colds and flu T- lymphocytes: fight viral infections and some cancers Macrophages: ingest foreign material (also known as pacman) Positive psychology- your strengths as far as functioning and satisfaction Coping: ways of coping with stress could be walking or listening to music Problem-focused coping: reduce stress in practical ways which tackles the problem. Ex: planning ahead to study for a test. Emotion focused coping: reducing the emotional impact by getting support from others. Ex: Talking to a family or friend Locus of control- our perception of our actions that can be good or bad depending on the circumstances Internal LOC- the person is in control of the circumstances Ex: you take fault in the ticket because you were speeding External LOC- force out of our control. Ex: luck/fate, spiritual Optimism- looks at positive aspects of a situation Pessimism- looks at the negative aspects of a situation
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