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Week of Sep. 22

by: Jahima Lujan

Week of Sep. 22 ANT 226

Jahima Lujan
GPA 3.5
Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Meadows

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About this Document

This contains information about Grammer terms, language and cultures, speech terms/norms, non-verbal communication, and linguistic anthropology. These notes are from September 22 and 24 of 2015.
Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Meadows
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jahima Lujan on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 226 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Meadows in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Missouri State University.

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Date Created: 10/01/15
AnthroDologV 226 9222415 September 22 2015 Phonology system of sound 0 Phenomes smallest sound unit in a language that distinguishes meaning about 30 per language Often letters d as in day k as in kite 0 Each language uses only a small portion of all possible human sounds O Positioncombinations of sounds differs greatly start of words as Swazi language Morphology system of meaning 0 Morpheme smallest unit of sound that contains meaning 0 Bound vs free morphemes teacher teach vs er I Teach free er bound Syntax rules of organization in a language relationships between forms and the rules for combining forms the arrangement of words to form phrases and sentences Grammar general rules for morpheme combination exceptions o the rules and rules for different classes of expectations How a specific area is divided into parts and related Kiowa pronoun forms 70 21 for I duel embodiment emphasis on action not subject Kiowa singledualtriplural distinctions Verbs adjectives verbal adjectives Gender and Class Distinctions vocabulary and pronunciation in some languages speech is used pre or sub fixes differential vocabulary etc Genderlects differences in how men and women speak and hear 0 Some scholars say that men see life in terms as a struggle against being cut off from their home unitcommunity Language and Culture 0 Language and culture re ect cultural emphasis on how a culture divides up its social and physical environment 0 How individuals are introduced to the order of their social and cultural environment numbering system kinship systemsextent of relations Speech norms for each culture slang proper speech curse words etc and different levels of a culture different socioeconomic classes Speech Manners re ect what we are socially sometimes economically Western emphasis on individualism critical perspective writing questions authority etc Contrasts sharply with Asian norms of group orientation maintaining harmony etc Language can be a means to solidify ethnicity with a group or a means to distance oneself from another person or group How Accent Switching often when moving from one area to another Dialect Switching often in minority situations Ebonics black sounds Black English long viewed as inferior nonproper use of English by a lowersocioeconomic group 0 Yet shown to be fully skilled and versatile and exacting Must understand background and traits of student in adjusting to academic situations and pressure of teachers 0 BEV Black English Vernacular null governed dialect spoken by some Afro Americans 0 Other similar forms Native American English I NonVerbal Communication 0 Forms I Readingwriting 6000 years based on verbal forms I Sign Language over 200 forms known I Art Forms Plains Indian pictographic calendars painted tips shields clothing I Kinesics body language Facial expressions gestures postures bowing handshaking or not holding hands hugging etc Norms for distance body spacing degree of eyebody contact etc Often depend on situation context movie theater vs restaurant September 24 2015 0 Areas of study in linguistic anthropology O Sociolinguistics focuses on how language is used and changes social and cultural effects upon language 39 Speech performance verbal and nonverbal 39 Observable differences among societies I Events that affect language industrialization acculturation social stratification national policies and how they change language structures and uses I Social factors that affect changes in structure and use Political correctness hate crimes concepts of race 0 Topical areas 0 Diversity style shifts diglossia 0 Gender differences genderlects O Stratification language and status position honorifics 39 Japan very formal vs US very informal 0 Historical Linguistics focuses on reconstructing the history and changes in languages 0 Comparative Linguistics focuses on documenting relationships between languages trace cultural and historical processes through languages


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