Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes HDF 213
Popular in Introduction to Human Sexuality
Popular in Human Development
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacobi Johnson on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 213 at Central Michigan University taught by Angera, Jeffrey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Sexuality in Human Development at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Chapter 6 Sexual Arousal and Resoonse The Brain The brain plays an important role in our sexuality Cerebral cortex the outer layer of the brain cerebrum that controls higher mental processes Limbic system a subcortical brain system composed of several interrelated structures that influence the sexual behavior of humans and other animals Key structures cingulate gyrus amygdala hippocampus and parts of the hypothalamus Evidence indicates that electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in human subjects produced sexual arousal sometimes culminating in orgasm The medial preoptic area MPOA in the hypothalamus when stimulated increases sexual behavior dopamine a neurotransmitter that induces neural activity in the MPOA which facilitates sexual arousal and activity serotonin a neurotransmitter that reduces or inhibits neural activity in the MPOA Male ejaculation causes a release of serotonin in the MPOA and the lateral hypothalamus which temporarily decreases sex drive Opiate drugs and SSRIS suppress sexual behavior When certain parts of the hypothalamus is destroyed sexual behavior can be dramatically reduced The Senses in order of heirarchv Touch Erogenous zones areas of the body that are particularly responsive to sexual stimulation Primary erogenous zones areas of the body that contain dense concentration of nerve endings Includes the genitals breasts buttocks inner thighs the neck the ears and the mouth Secondary erogenous zones areas of the body that have become erotically sensitive through learning and experience Vision We place strong emphasis on physical appearance and grooming Men may be more stimulated by visual stimuli a finding supported by Kinsey may be skewed by social influences such as women finding porn insensitive and degrading most women show some level of physiologically measurable arousal when shown explicit films Smell A person39s sexual history and cultural conditioning often influences What smells he or she finds arousing Pheromones certain odors produced by the body that relate to reproductive functions that are suggested to be related to sexual arousal ex estratetraenol or EST and androstadienone or AND the vomeronasal organ and the olfactory epithelium are specific parts in the nose that are specifically sensitive to pheromones Taste plays a relatively minor role in sexual arousal some individuals may be selfconscious about how they taste or smell so many products are made to help this nevertheless some people can still appreciate natural human tastes and smells Hearing Some people find words erotic conversations moans and orgasmic cries to be highly arousing Aphrodisiacs and Anaphrodisiacs Aphrodisiac a substance that allegedly arouses sexual desire and increases the capacity for sexual activity Some foods considered aphrodisiacs bananas cucumbers oysters asparagus ginseng root and potatoes as well as the ground up horns of some animals thus the origin of the word horny It is also widely believed that alcohol is an aphrodisiac although it may just be because it decreases inhibitions reduces anxiety and provides an excuse Large amounts of alcohol can have serious negative effects on sexual functioning Drugs such as cocaine MDMA marijuana LSD etc have also been called aphrodisiacs Viagra and similar drugs can also be considered aphrodisiacs Anaphrodisiac a substance that inhibits sexual desire and behavior Common drugs with anaphrodisiac potential include antiandrogens opiates tranquilizers anticoagulants antihypertensives antidepressants antipsychotics nicotine birth control sedatives etc The Role of Hormones in Sexual Behavior Steroid hormones the sex hormones and the hormones of the adrenal cortex Neuropeptide hormones chemicals produced in the brain that influence sexuality and other behavioral functions Testosterone is clearly linked with male sexuality one source of information about testosterone s effect male sexual function is in studies of men who have undergone castration or removal of the testes Surgically castrated men experience significantly reduced sexual interest and activity within the first year of undergoing the operation A second source of information involves androgen blocking drugs which drastically reduce the amount of testosterone circling in the bloodstream which decreases sexual behavior in sex offenders A third source of information is research on hypogonadism a condition that results in impaired hormone production in the testes Hypogonadal men who undergo hormone treatment often experience increased sexual interest Estrogens contribute to a general sense of wellbeing help maintain the thickness and elasticity of the vaginal lining and contribute to vaginal lubrication but the role of estrogens in female sexual behavior is still unclear Women who undergo estrogen therapy ET experience heightened vaginal lubrication and somewhat increased sexual desire pleasure and orgasmic capacity Testosterone also plays an important part in female sexual behavior Estrogentestosterone therapy produces even more marked increases in sexual behavior and interest Total amount of testosterone in a man s blood 3001200 ngdL in women s blood 2050 ngdL Too much testosterone can have adverse effects in both sexes Testosterone replacement therapy TRT oxytocin produced in the hypothalamus inserts significant influence on sexual response sensuality and interpersonal erotic and emotional attraction It is secreted during cuddling and physical intimacy and makes skin more sensitive to touch The escalated levels of this hormone at the point of orgasm could contribute to the emotional and erotic bonding of sexual partners and a sense of shared attraction Research with human subjects indicates that oxytocin plays an important role in facilitating social attachments with others Sexual Resoonse Kaplan s Three Stage Model desire excitement and orgasm Masters and Johnson s FourPhase Model excitement plateau orgasm and resolution physiological responses that are involved vasocongestion engorgement of blood vessels and myotonia muscle tension Excitement phase First phase of the sexual response cycle in which engorgement of the sexual organs and an increase in muscle tension heart rate and blood pressure occur Pateau phase Second phase of the sexual response cycle in which muscle tension heart rate blood pressure and vasocongestion increase orgasm a series of muscular contractions of the pelvic floor muscles occurring at the peak of sexual arousal The Grafenberg Spot Gspot an area of erotic sensitivity on the front wall of the vaginal cava Differences Between the Sexes in Sexual Resbonse One major difference between the sexes is the range of variations in the sexual response cycle The refractory period in the male cycle a pause of time that must elapse before orgasm can occur again Women do not experience such a thing Multiple orgasms two or more orgasms in a short period a couple minutes or less Women may experience this but due to the male refractory period male orgasms are more spaced out
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