Week 6 Notes on Democracy
Week 6 Notes on Democracy INR3003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beatriz Arteaga on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INR3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Democracy Product of the NationStates Europe US too I PostCold War Predictions 0 Mearsheimer Huntington Fukuyama Mearsheimer Realist view thought we were going to miss the bipolarity Predicted the next period would be unstable Huntington predicted the period we were moving into was going to be more bloodyturbulent Liberals welcomed the end of the Cold War very optimistic Fukuyama expected democracy to bring peace but also thought the peace would be boring II Waves of Democracy We have THREE waves of democracy First wave comes in the Western world where it originated end of 1700s and through the 18005 First wave ends with the strengthening of empires in WWI Not until the end of WWII did we see the second wave of democracy Democracies were heavily replaced by military governments between 19601980 ish Third wave was due to the Cold War III Fukuyama39s quotEnd of Historyquot the quotend point of mankind39s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human governmentquot CONSTRUCTIVISM perspective not a theory A Hegel Liberal democracy sees us all as individuals this included PEOPLE and STATES George Hegel German philosopher He is the source of many of Fukuyama39s ideas Viewed the world in a nonmaterialistic way was focused on IDEAS His work was overlooked and misinterpreted Argues that there is 3 main components to mankind 1 Desire for survival going to seek out the things that we need for survival 2 Have the ability to reason rational thinking ensures that we get the things for survival 3 Natural desire for recognition drives us into competition DO NOT seek to kill oponent Democracy provides that recognition we are all equal and have voting powersrights WE HAVE WORTH B Preeminence of Ideas For Fukuyama the core is IDEAS quotideas determine everything elsequot Ideas come first C Teleological History Means linear development not random Story like from nonsophisticated ideas to ideas like socialismMarxismanarchy and finally democracy Fukuyama believes this development ends with liberal democracy winning WWII put Fascism to an end Communism and Democracy were left Communism fell too leaving liberaldemocracy We will see wars but Fukuyama says there will be petty resources territory D LiberalDemocracy Need a government that recognizes the rights of its people Recognize that we NEED government BUT it has to be limited Government has to protect the rights and freedoms of its people Can buy and sell to have our own things Fukuyama explains that liberaldemocracy is capitalist free market economy Fukuyama sees that capitalism helps to REINFORCE democracy IV Another explanation for Democracy Modernization Theory See democracy as a byproduct of modernization A Industrialization Created so much social cultural and political change that democracy was the result of the Industrial Revolution B Societies Transformed 0 Emergence of Bourgeoisie Proletariat Urbanization Education and Civil Society Modernizations will form new classes Most important to the modernization theorists was the Bourgeoisie quotupper middle classquot Were receiving money but lacked the quottitlesquot weren39t noble born wanted the right to own land buy and sell Proletariat workers driving force of the Industrial Revolution Realized they had power went on strikes and created unions Both put pressure on the government to let them in and work for them Urbanization Industrialization caused cities to become populated caused different people to live together quotPower in numbersquot Increased focus on education in order to continue industrialization process we needed educated people Growth of the Civil Society middle class is the driving force C Democracy Prevails Modernization theorists use these changes to justify that industrializationmodernization lead to democracy D Critiques of Modernization Theory If industrialization leads to democracy why is China still communist Model that worked out for the Western world might not work out for the rest of the world Fukuyama doesn39t believe you need modernization to get to democracy V Democratic of Stability Theory quotWeak democraciesquot don39t have wealth Wealth helps democracies to be more stable but wealth DOES NOT create democracy Major Powers have not strayed from democracy due to wealth and the institutions civil society Democratic Peace I Criticisms of Fukuyama NonWestern areas do not agree with democracy Ethnocentrism democracy doesn39t work for everyone else Cultures see democracy as very foreign Perhaps he is overstating democracy and its appeal II Democratic Peace 0 3 Main Points Democracy promotes peace If we have more democracies out there we will see less conflict DEMOCRACIES DO NOT FIGHT EACH OTHER Democracies do not tend to be militaristic powers Less likely to get involved in militarized disputes Democracies value peace Clinton quotbest way to end security dilemma is by supporting the spread of democracy everywherequot quotMake better trading partners and partners in diplomacy Democratic Peace According to Our IR Perspectives A Identity Views Argue that democracies value peace more than nondemocracies Democracies share specific norms and value makes it easier to be friendly It is a shared political ideology B Liberal Views All about cooperation and democratic institutions Proponents of democracy but for them it comes down to cooperation quotDemocracies don t tend to go to war because we are deeply connected with each otherquot Argue that going to war would negate the cooperation and benefits absolute gains Belong to the same international organizations governed by the same lawsrules that we all agree with Democracies are more likely to use diplomacy than conflict due to cooperation and communication C Realists Views Democracy is favorited by realists Do not think there is any guarantee that democracies will not go to war with each other they believe it is very likely They do point out that democracies tend to ally together against nondemocracies IV How does Democracy Help Prevent War A Public Constraints Within democracies there are public constraints Citizens constrain the leaders B Democratic Culture quotAt the core of a democratic culture is the value of peacequot Do not want conflict Democratic society is not likely to support a war that it considers to be unjust wars of expansion aggression etc C Audience Costs Means that political leaders always have to keep the will of their people audience in mind There are repercussions for not doing so held in Congress impeached etc Democratic cultures the people demand transparency Leads to positive diplomacy between democracies citizens hold the leaders accountable No transparency while dealing with nondemocracies V Are Democracies More Peaceful Statistical data seems to support the claim Things to keep in mind A world populated by democracies is a new thing cannot say statistical data is a quotconstantquot During the period democracies have not fought each other Differences between weak and strong democracies weak one are less inclined to go to war Transition TO democracy can be very turbulent VI Exceptions A Iran Mohd Mosaddegh 1953 Wanted to nationalize Iran39s oil industry Used CIA to put pressure on Iran used propaganda to turn army against Mosaddegh US used covert operations no war direct conflict grey area B Guatemala Jacobo Arbenz 1954 Became democracy after WWII Arbenz was elected president moved to nationalize the unused land of fruit company land distribution Main concern of the U5 was that he was moving towards communism CIA trained antiArbenz to invade US actually did not step on Guatemala soil 1954 Arbenz went to exile in Mexico
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