IS 2054 Non-state agents, Changing the Character of War, & Modern Warfare
IS 2054 Non-state agents, Changing the Character of War, & Modern Warfare IS 2054
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by windwalkerr on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Nonstate agents 31416 Changing the Character of War 31616 Modern Warfare 31816 Nonstate agents Aside from states What factors are important 0 Organizations 0 EU 0 Institutions 0 Nations 0 Terrorist organization 0 NGOs 0 Social movements 0 ie Black lives matter Individuals Subnational groupsgov ts Religious leaders Media Bureaucrats at all levels Corporations Agents of IR amp WP 0 Approximately 200 gov ts 0 77200 transnational corporations State centrism 0 Predominant theories of IR are state centric 0 Realism neorealism 0 But although this simplifies study of IR it creates several problems 0 Ambiguity btw diff meanings of state 0 Lack of similarity among countries I Culture economy pol systems population 0 Anarchy states as coherent units lack of international coherence 0 Subnational national supranational transnational loyalties Corporations 0 Transnational corporations have branches or subsidiaries outside home country 0 Transnational ec actors importexport I Ie Banana republic 0 Transnational pol actors lobby gov ts abt trade 0 TNCs diminish sovereignty 0 Control over trade triangulation amp indirect traderace to bottomextraterritoriality global regulation amp over currency 0 TNCs create transnational interdependence Nonlegitimate groups Nonstate agents 31416 Changing the Character of War 31616 Modern Warfare 31816 0 Transnational criminals can destabilize international political amp economic order 0 Armsdrugshumancounterfeit trafficking 0 Terrorists guerillas amp national liberation movements 0 What support do they get What legitimacy do they have Why 0 Who holds gov ts accountable ICC ICTY ICTY etc 0 Need for supranationaltransnationalinternational governance In the 20th century there were more deaths as a result of subnational con ict than through international warfare NGOs 0 Interest groupspressure groupscivil society 0 Nonprofit 0 Nonviolent 0 Not established by international treaty or national gov t 0 Unionslabor movements Organizations 0 Founding documents rules of procedure executive bodies precedents amp norms socialization processes 0 UN 0 WTO Epistemic communities 0 sociopsychological entities that create and justify knowledge 0 can constitute of only two people and yet gain an important role in building knowledge on any specific subject Changing the Character of War War is the continuation of politics by other means War begins with breakdown of political discussion amp peace the deterioration of the relationships btw countries You cannot separate diplomacy amp warfare They settle political disputes not through diplomatic channels but through war ie Pearl harbor was not the beginning for the US it was the breakdown of discussion War to peace 0 14400 wars throughout history 0 35 billion deaths 0 Sharp decline in war since end of Cold War 0 Obsolescence of war 0 Democratic peace of argument democracies will go to war but they aren t prepared to fight against another democracy 0 But they WILL fight to democratize nondemocratic states increasing the prevalence of war I Democratic states tend to solve their differences through nonmilitary ways Nonstate agents 31416 Changing the Character of War 31616 Modern Warfare 31816 I Called the democratic peace argument 0 How do they settle fundamental disputes amp maintain close diplomatic ties even when they don t agree Two democracies that went to war during the 20th century You get 5 extra credit points Must be real democracies sovereign states amp must have fought a war during the 20th century Look at democracy index at the time the war was fought Modern Warfare Modern Warfare Nationalized Opposing metanarratives amp overarching ideologies Industrialized Civilians as legitimate targets Extraction conscription amp taxation Centralizationbureaucracy Governed by rules of war or engagement How do we conceptualize the ethics of warfare Total warfare 0 You use all the resources economic political etc towards war effort 0 Comes into discussion in 1800s Copeland amp Maj or wars 0 All of great powers in system are involved 0 Wars are allout con icts fought at highest level of intensity total war w full military mobilization 0 They contain strong possibility that one or more of contending great powers could be eliminated as sovereign states Modern warfare is how US fought everything until the cold war Napoleon was probably the transition into modern warfare PostModem Warfare 0 Hedley Bull organized violence carried on by political units against each other 0 Violence is not war unless it is both executed by political unit amp directed against political unit 0 What counts as political unit 0 The sloppy use of war 0 war on an abstract noun Chris Thomas I war on drugs Nonstate agents 31416 Changing the Character of War 31616 Modern Warfare 31816 I war on terror I war on poverty 0 Less concrete terms 0 Often involves outsourcing of war to private corporations 0 Rise of nonnational identities amp loyalties Possibility of virtual warfare 0 Drones Increasing prevalence of ethnic violence or civil warfare Rejection of international rules of war Importance of transnational networks Soldiers funding propaganda etc Revolution in military affairs 0 when a nation s military seizes an opportunity to transform its strategy military doctrine training education organization equipment operations amp tactics to achieve decisive military results in fundamentally new ways 0 Developed after watching the impact of superior military technology during 1991 Gulf War 0 Con icts would be decided by military technologies such as guided weapons amp space satellites 0 Focus on power of information precision amp demoralization 0 Asymmetric responses Ethics in Warfare 0 Different views 0 Plato s Republic I Justice is the interest of the stronger Thrasymachus I Basically might is right 0 Cicero s De O iciis I War only when diplomacy fails I Protection of those who surrender I Man who isn t legally a soldier has no right to fight the enemy I Man s natural way of resolving con ict is through discussion 0 War is brutish amp uncivilized 0 St Augustine of Hippo I First to conceptualize just war 0 A good ruler will wage wars only if they are just 0 Though just still undesirable If there were no such thing as just war man would be under compulsion not to wage war at all 0 justified only by injustice of an aggressor 0 St Thomas Aquinas I Outlines requirements for just war in Summa Theologiae 0 Sovereign authority 0 Individuals can t declare war that s what courts are for 0 Just cause Nonstate agents 31416 Changing the Character of War 31616 Modern Warfare 31816 0 Make amends for wrongs af icted 0 Restore what was seized unjustly 0 Right intention 0 Peace as the end 0 Vengeance amp power not condoned 0 Priests amp clerics aren t allowed to fight 0 Non combatants Chivalry 0 Originally a military code 0 Had nothing to do w holding doors for ppl 0 Not always followed 0 Applied in theory to knights 0 Important bc it fed into amp was replaced by culture of gentlemen 0 In uenced military through the Napoleonic wars in Europe amp US Civil war especially in the South Codified Laws of War I Started w Lieber Code in 1863 0 Laws of war for union troops First law that forbade killing of POWs No use of poisons No torture to extract confessions Rights of POWs Allowed some things now illegal I Shooting spies amp guerillas I Reprisal for enemy breaking laws of war by shooting POWs 0 Served as basis for Hague Conventions of 1899 amp 1907 0 Geneva Conventions 0 First Geneva 18864 I Treatment of wounded amp sick in field 0 Second 1906 I Treatment of wounded sick amp shipwrecked at sea 0 Third 1929 I Treatment of Prisoners of War 0 4th 1949 I Treatment of Protection of Civilians 00000 0 Hague Convention of 1907 0 Governs declaring war laws of land warfare neutrality discharging projectiles from balloons etc