Cell phys notes 10-01-15
Cell phys notes 10-01-15 BIOL 3301 - 002
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BIOL 3301 - 002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lutz on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3301 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Laura D Mydlarz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see CELL PHYSIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
1001 15 Reducing agents break disulfide bonds Detergent breaks Hbonds Organelles allow for different chemical concentrations in each place which allows for different organelles to perform different functions based on the internal chemical environment some allow for formation of macromolecules some allow for destruction of invading structures etc Each one has its own set of proteins that it needs to perform its function Mitochondria are the most common organelles in the cell because their function is needed in large quantities note there is more cytosol by volume than all the organelles combined Microenvironment an environment created on an extremely small scale to prevent the environment from effecting the rest of the cell Mitochondria make their own protein but most organelles do not There has to be a way to get proteins into and out of different organelles The same goes for other chemicals and molecules in the cell Cells move proteins using protein pumps and carriers Proteins are formed in the Rough ER and the cytosol by the ribosomes then specifically transported to the organelles that need them All the formation begins in the cytosol From the cytosol the starting point for protein synthesis proteins end up in the nucleus peroxisomes mitochondria chloroplasts or the ER if it is not fully formed in the cytosolFrom the ER the proteins move to the golgi apparatus and out into vesicles out of the cell or being destroyed Proteins have a signal that tells the ribosomes whether or not they are to be synthesized in the ER If they are ER proteins synthesis pauses while the ribosome moves to the ER and the ribosome attaches to the Rough ER and continues synthesis of the protein For those proteins that are made for the cytosol there is no translocation If they are going into a organelle they are posttranslationally translocated to the organelle If they are formed in the ER they are cotranslationally translocated translocated during translation Ribosomes are composed of two subunits They are only assembled during the protein translation They selfassemble around the mRNA strand that codes for the protein then begin translation The signal that the protein gives to the ribosome for where to send it is called the targeting signal All proteins have a targeting signal except those that aren39t going anywhere aka stay in the cytosol For ER synthesized proteins the targeting signal is always at the beginning of the protein For other proteins it can be anywhere The targeting signal says where it is going not what it is Proteins that go to the same organelle have the same target signal in order to send them to the same place Proteins can also be placed in the membranes as well which requires different signals The targeting signal is not always kept in the protein once it is synthesized but it is not always cleaved out of the protein either Double membraned areas sometimes require double targeting one targeting signal per membrane Table 131 in the notesbook lists the organelles and the targeting signal for each Translocon opens a space in the organelle membrane to let the protein into the organelle Moving protein into the mitochondria This is complicated because there are 4 different possible destinations in the mitochondria Mitochondria targeting signals are TOM and TIM for the membranes oouter iinner Mitochondrial proteins fold on their own in the cytosol but they have to unfold in order to enter the mitochondria Does not refold until it has reached it39s destination Translocation competent linear With chaperones keeping it linear
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