Section 3 Notes: Chapter 4 Learning and Chapter 6 Motivation and Emotion
Section 3 Notes: Chapter 4 Learning and Chapter 6 Motivation and Emotion PSY 100-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nysheba Carter on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-001 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Douglas Krull in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology - SB in Psychlogy at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Chapter 4 Learning Classical Conditioning PaVlOV s Research 0 The unconditioned stimulus food naturally produces the unconditioned response salivation 0 The conditioned stimulus tone does not CS tone gt no salivation 0 In learning the CS and US are presented together CS tone US food gt salivation 0 After learning the conditioned stimulus tone produces the conditioned response salivation CS tone gt CR salivation Example 1 Classical Conditioning Autoshaping in Pigeons 0 The unconditioned stimulus food naturally produces the unconditioned response pecking US food gt UR pecking 0 The conditioned stimulus key light does not CS key light gt no pecking the key light 0 In learning the CS and US are presented together CS key light US food gt pecking 0 After learning the conditioned stimulus key light produces the conditioned response pecking CS key light gt CR pecking the key light Example 2 Classical Conditioning Eyeblink Conditioning in Rabbits 0 The unconditioned stimulus puff of air naturally produces the unconditioned response blinking US puff of air gt UR blinking 0 The conditioned stimulus tone does not CS tone gt no blinking 0 In learning the CS and US are presented together CS tone US puff of air gt blinking 0 After learning the conditioned stimulus tone produces the conditioned response blinking CS tone gt CR blinking Factors that Affect Conditioning 1 Order Forward conditioning CS before US works better than backward conditioning US before CS 2 Relationship between the CS and US Contiguity What if the CS and US are separated by an hour Contingency Rescorla s Contingency Theory What if food sometimes follows a tone but sometimes appears without a tone 3 Intensity Greater intensity enhances learning both CS and US Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination Example Dog learns to salivate to tone Dog also salivates to similar sound means it generalization Dog doesn t salivate to different sound means it discrimination Extinction Example Cat has learned to run to the kitchen when humans use can opener because this means tuna If cat stops getting tuna stops running to kitchen that mean its extinction Doesn t mean association is unleamed Spontaneous recovery after delay cat begins to run to kitchen again Renewal if extinction occurs at friend s house cat still runs to kitchen when he comes back home What is learned SR or SS The example of sensory preconditioning Example 2 CSs tone and light presented without food Then 1 CS tone presented with food Other CS light might also produce salivation The light was only paired with the tone so sensory preconditioning suggests SS rather than SR Classical Conditioning Phenomena Blocking Previous association blocks new association Example Present tone and food until dogs learn to salivate to the tone Then present tone and light with food Light does not produce salivation Classical Conditioning Phenomena Latent Inhibition Previous exposure to CS hinders learning Example Present tone without food Then present tone with food Learning to salivate to tone is hindered Phenomena help us to develop theories RescorlaWagner Model Suggests that surprise promotes learning Explains blocking US already expected so no surprise Doesn t explain latent inhibition PearceHall Model Suggests we attend to CS might predict US Explains blocking first CS already predicts US so no need to attend to second CS Explains latent inhibition CS alone suggests CS can be ignored Applications of Classical Conditioning Explains Conditioned Emotional Reactions Watson and Rayner 1920 and Little Albert B F Skinner 0 Constructed operant chambers Skinner Boxes to investigate effects of reinforcement 0 Very successful researcher in instrumental conditioning 0 Perhaps most famous psychologist after Freud 0 Behaviorist 0 Skinner s Behavior Analysis perspective suggests that theories about thoughtsfeelings are unnecessary rather just examine effects of experimental conditions on behavior Classical Not dependent on behavior tone and food presented regardless of what dog does Instrumental Reward or punishment based on behavior cat presses lever to escape rat presses bar to get food Positive reinforcementapplication of something pleasant cookies praise Negative reinforcementremoval of something unpleasant taking aspirin stops headache putting on a coat makes us less cold Positive punishmentapplication of something unpleasant reprimand spanking Negative punishmentremoval of something pleasant no dessert no TV If it increases the behavior it s reinforcement If it s adding something it s positive if it s removing something it s negative Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Produces rapid learning but rapid extinction Intermittent reinforcement Produces slower learning but greater resistance to extinction Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect aka Humphrey s Paradox less reinforcement gt greater resistance to extinction Ratio schedules Reinforcement based on number of behaviors Interval schedules Reinforcement follows first response after interval of time Ratio schedules produce a higher rate of responding Fixed schedules Number of behaviorsinterval of time is unchanging e g FRlO FIlO Variable schedules Number of behaviorsinterval of time changes e g VRlO VIlO Fixed schedules show a postreinforcement pause Premack Principle Higher probability behaviors can reinforce lower probability behaviors Examples If apple slices and cookies are available children might eat apple slices to get cookies If broccoli and apple slices are available children might eat broccoli to get apple slices Bandura s Social Learning Theory 1 Attention to the model 2 Retention remember the model s actions 3 Reproduction reproduce the model s actions 4 Motivation to perform the actions Chapter 6 Motivation and Emotion A motive A need or desire eg hunger that pushes us to attain a goal Perspectives on Motivation 1 Instincts 2 Drive Theory and homeostasis 3 Arousal Theory 4 Incentives Intrinsic motivation extrinsic motivation and the Overjustification Effect 1 Biological factorsHypothalamus lateral ventromedial stomach stretch receptors liver glucose intestines fat etc Hormones Satiety signals ghrelin CCK Adiposity signals leptin insulin 2 Social factorsSocial eating others are eating politeness time of day time to eat pancakes for dinner culture eg duck feet fish eyes bats grasshoppers etc Emotion Universal Emotions Happiness sadness surprise anger fear disgust Ekman amp Friesen 1971 Theories of Emotion J amesLange Theory of Emotion Facial Feedback Hypothesis Izard 1990 Strack amp colleagues 1988 SchachterSinger 1962 Cognitive Theory of Emotion Misattribution Dutton amp Aron 1974 Why doesn t money predict happiness Myers 2008 Adaptation Brickman amp colleagues 1978 Social comparisons People Who are materialistic tend to be less happy Diener amp BiswasDiener 2002 What does predict happiness Myers 2000 Genes Nes 2010 and some personality traits e g selfesteem Lyubomirsky amp colleagues 2006 Good relationships Being married Lee amp Bulanda 2005 romantic relationship quality Demir 2008 friendship quality Demir amp Ozdemir 2010 Religious actiVities and spirituality Cohen 2002 Maselko amp Kubzansky 2006
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