Mod. 5 Lectures 1-5
Mod. 5 Lectures 1-5 ASM 104
Popular in Bones, Stones/Human Evolution
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Hsu on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASM 104 at Arizona State University taught by Campisano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Bones, Stones/Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
MODULE 5 LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about the species Homo erectus KEY POINTS Existed from 19 million150 thousand years ago First hominin to leave Africa found in Africa Europe amp Asia use fire hearths eat lots of meat run for long distances have a much larger brain have body size amp limb proportions similar tomodern humans Longestlived hominin species 9x longer than Homo sapiens existence MAIN IDEAS Ernst Haeckel 18341919 Scientist of many fields naturalist physician anatomist etc Studies focused on comparative embryology development between conception amp birth Believed that ontogeny recapitulates phylogenyquot or that a species embryonic development recapitulates that of its ancestors not completely correct but widely accepted at the time Concluded that since human embryonic development was most similar to Southeast Asian apes that s where human ancestors would be found Eugene Dubois Dutch physician anatomist who studied evolution Believed Haeckel s conclusion amp joined the Dutch army so he could travel to Indonesia former Dutch colony 1891 discovered fossil hominin remains at Trinil site near the S010 River on Java first early remains found outside Africa or Europe Skull cap w large cranium Femur that showed bipedalism Named Pithecanthropus erectus upright ape manquot later changed to Homo erectus Other remains have since been found on Java in multiple sites as well as on the Chinese mainland Peking Manquot dated 600300 thousand years ago 1927 Canadian anatomy professor Davidson Black discovers Homo erectus molar in Zhoukoudian cave in China Named Sinanthropus pekinensis Chinese man from Pekingquot 10 years of excavations in Zhoukoudian recover about 45 individuals all lost during WWII Iapanese invasion except 2 teeth amp paleoanthropologist Franz Weidenreich s detailed measurements photos amp casts Cranial features of Asian H erectus Dolichocephalic cranium longer front to back Prominent brow ridges Occipital torus ridge at the back of the skull Smaller dentition than earlier Homo Sagittal keel like a sagittal crest but lower amp more rounded African Homo discovery sites Koobi Fora Kenya East Africa Swartkrans cave South Africa Lake Turkana Kenya Nariokotome Boyquot or Strapping Youthquot Found near Lake Turkana Kenya dated 16 million years ago 9 years old but already 5 tall Relatively longer legs amp shorter arms Tall amp thin appropriate for equatorial climate Narrower pelvis Gona Ethiopia H erectus pelvis dated 12 million years ago Pelvic outlet is larger amp more circular than Australopithecus Homo sapiens is even more so to allow passage of offspring w larger head amp brain Features of H habiIiSrudolfensis Features of H erectus Smaller cranial capacity 600700 cmz Larger cranial capacity 7001000 cmz Spherical cranium Dolichocephalic cranium Thin cranial bones Thicker cranial bones Moderate brow ridge Very prominent brow ridge Large face amp teeth Smaller face amp teeth No occipital torus Prominent occipital torus Smaller body size Larger body size Primitive limb proportions Limb proportions close to modern human Small oval pelvic outlet Larger rounder pelvic outlet Features of African H erectus Features of Asian H erectus No sagittal keel Sagittal keel Smaller brow ridge More prominent brow ridge Smaller brain size 700900 cmz Larger brain size 8001000 cmz Thin cranial bones Thicker cranial bones Spherical cranium Dolichocephalic cranium Some believe hominins split into two species after leaving Africa They call the Asian species H erectus and the African species H ergaster which evolved into H heidelbergensis and later split into H neanderthalensis and H sapiens more in later lectures Lithic stone tool technology Oldowan tools 2515 million years ago H habilis and rudolfensis Achulean tools 15 million 200 thousand years ago H erectus Bifacial akes removed from both sides rock core Used as multipurpose handaxe Teardrop shaped round end is held sharp end cuts Animal bones found near H erectus show marks from these tools Important discovery site Olorgesailie Kenya dated 900 thousand years ago Found in both Asia amp Africa may have been brought to Africa or developed independently Why was H erectus the first hominid to migrate outside of Africa Technology use of fire Stone tools found near charred sediment at Koobi Fora site Burnt animal bones found near H erectus fossils in Swartkrans cave Results of geochemical analysis suggest campfires Climate change Shift in Africa from warm wet climates to cool dry climates amp open grasslands savannahs Created pressure for larger body size better heat dissipation amp predator deterrence amp efficient bipedalism needed to travel farther to get to resources Achulean tools Made it possible to rely more on animal food sources leading to better nutrition larger body size Better access to resources Accepted theory a combination of factors Proposed by paleoanthropologist Dan Liberman Anatomical adaptations of H erectus that allowed endurance running combined w environmental changes SUMMARY H erectus was dominant from 2 million to several hundred thousand years ago living in Africa Asia amp Europe It was eventually replaced by H heidelbergensis from which Neanderthals and H sapiens come MODULE 5 LECTURE 2 INTRODUCTION This lecture talks more about hominins found outside of Africa focusing on the Dmanisi site in the Republic of Georgia KEY POINTS 16 million years ago H erectus found in Eurasia amp East Southeast Asia To get there populations must have passed through Southwestern amp Western Asia but fossils weren t found there until recently MAIN IDEAS Dmanisi site discovery Caucasus Mountains in Southern Georgia Hominin fossils discovered by David Lordkipanidze in 1991 amp dated to 175 million years ago Wide variation in jaw size tooth roots amp size amp shape of wisdom teeth Most paleoanthropologists attribute this to sexual dimorphism Brain size closer to Hhabilis than African H erectus 600775 cmZ Disproves idea that brain size was key to migration outside of Africa Lithic tools more similar to Olodowan tools First evidence of masticatory impairment many teeth lost years before death gt individual must have relied on conspecific carequot individuals taking care of other members of their species of which this is the oldest evidence Predation by sabretooth cat Megan tereon Dmanisi skull found w punctures matching its fangs CONCLUSION Since these fossils date to 175 million years ago H erectus must have left Africa by about 18 million years ago Most primitive examples of H erectus Suggets that first hominins to leave Africa were very similar to H habilis MODULE 5 LECTURE 3 INTRODUCTION This lecture focuses on Homo heidelbergensis or the Archaic Homoquot KEY POINTS H heidelbergensis has some primitive features more like H erectus but also some more advanced features closer to modern humans Dominant from about 800125 thousand years ago Middle Pleistocene Found in Africa Asia amp Europe MAIN IDEAS African discoveries dated 600200 thousand years ago Rhodesian Manquot found in Kabwe Zambia in 1921 First human fossil found in Africa Oldest fossil found w cavities Evidence of ear infection Bodo Ethiopia and Elansfontein South Africa Cranial anatomy Large braincase cranial capacity around 1300 cm2 Prominent occipital torus Prominent separated brow ridge Large nasal aperture amp wide nasal bridge Wide midface Asian discoveries 200130 thousand years ago Dali China Cranial capacity of 1120 cm2 Very prominent arched brow ridge amp wide nasal cavity Maba China 126 thousand years ago Depressed fracture probably caused by blunt object Thought to be oldest fossil evidence of interpersonal violence Iinniushan China 200 thousand years ago Largest female found in the Pleistocene 170 lbs amp 5 Possible adaptation to cold climate European discoveries 800130 thousand years ago Mauer Germany Mandible found in 1908 Large size but no modern chin Petralona Greece amp Arago France amp Swanscombe England Particularly large occipital torus Steinheim Germany Sima de 105 Huesos in Atapuerca Spain Pit inside natural cave shaft dated 500400 thousand years ago About 30 individuals w one red quartz rare handaxe possible evidence of early burial w an offering Schoningen Germany 1995 3 wood spears found in mine w remains of 10 horses Dated 400 thousand years old oldest wooden artifacts Evidence for large game hunting Beginnings of Neanderthal features Widening of midfacial region midfacial prognathismquot Occiptial torus expanded into an occipital bun Seen in Petralona amp Atapuerca fossils Evidence that H heidelbergensis was the ancestor of Neanderthals SUMMARY Located in Africa Europe amp Asia Important sites Kabwe Bodo Atapuerca Dali amp Maba Africa 600200 thousand years ago Asia 200130 thousand years ago Used Achulean tools hunted large game built shelters were adapted to cold climate Preceded Neanderthals MODULE 5 LECTURE 4 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about Homo neanderthalensis history and anatomy KEY POINTS Evolved at the end of the Pleistocene 350 to 28 thousand years ago Originated in Europe amp Asia during cold glacial period Fossil evidence for Neanderthals exists from 150 to 28 thousand years ago MAIN IDEAS Feldhofer Cave in Neander Valley of Germany 1856 first fossil recognized as a Neanderthal researchers didn t realize some earlier fossils were Neanderthals until this one was studied La Capelleaux Saints France Skull of old man with tooth loss amp resorption Reconstruction of Neanderthal based on this skull in uenced concept of dim witted caveman Evolutionary significance Some scientists believe Neanderthals went completely extinct amp are not related at all to modern humans Presapiens Theory Others believe they are our ancestors due to worldwide gene ow Physical features Platycephalic ovalshaped cranium with 13001740 cm2 capacity Occipital bun More narrow tapered brow ridge Sloping forehead Large broad nose Dentition Relatively small molars amp large front teeth with at anteriorly sloped chewing surface Taurodont molars larger pulp cavity section of tooth inside the gum is larger Gap behind last molar As compared to modern humans More stocky robust stature Longer clavicle Wider ribcage Larger elbow amp knee joint Wider hips Thicker femur with anterior curvature These are all likely adaptations to a cold climate Discovery sites Saccopastore Italy Krapina Croatia Shovelshaped incisors La Ferassie France TeshikTash Uzbekistan Mt Circeo Italy Amud Cave Israel Nasal turbinates expand inner nasal surface area to help warm cold air Gibraltar Spain Neanderthals in Spain amp Portugal are thought to have migrated there to avoid competition from modern humans Zafarraya Spain Neanderthal DNA 1997 mitochondrial DNA mtDNA inherited only through females collected from Neanderthal marrow amp compared to human amp chimpanzee mtDNA Only 7 variation between Neanderthals amp humans compared to 15 between chimpanzees amp humans Narrowed down when H sapiens and H neandertalensis diverged about 550 700 thousand years ago compared to split from chimpanzees 46 million years ago CONCLUSION We know some interbreeding occurred between H sapiens and H neandertalensis before neandertalensis died out because all nonAfrican modern humans have Neanderthal DNA Probably occurred about 45 thousand years ago w H sapiens who were leaving Africa MODULE 5 LECTURE 5 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about behavior and culture of Neanderthals MAIN IDEAS Dentition Anterior slope of front teeth chewing surface suggests overuse possibly for holding animal skins Tools Mousterian or Middle Stone Age tools More specialized sophisticated than H erectus tools Evidence of hafting attaching stone points to wood to make spears suggests intercept ambush hunting Used stone bone amp ivory Diet Chemical analysis nitrogen amp carbon shows heavy dependence on meat Probably due to cold climate amp lack of plants Injuries trauma Interpersonal con ict evidence on bones of violence between Neanderthals All adults over 30 have healed fractures mostly upper body Cannibalism El Sidron Cave Spain Group of related Neanderthals found dead w cut marks on bones similar to marks on butchered animals suggesting cannibalism Conspecific care Shanidar Cave in Zagros Mountains Iraq Skeleton of man w one arm still lived to about 40 La Chapelleaux Saints Arthritic skeleton These individuals couldn t have survived unless taken care of Burial Shanidar Cave skeleton found w plant pollen around it thought to have been buried w owers La Chapelleaux Saints skeleton found in shallow trench w bison leg TeshikTash skeleton found in grave w mountain goat horns Symbolism Talons of eagles found w cuts from stone tools Since eagles were rare the talons probably had some significance SUMMARY During the time of the Neanderthals there were separate populations in different areas as well as populations of H sapiens amp H erectus Oldest modern humans originated in Ethiopia about 160 thousand years ago amp migrated north amp south some interbreeding w Neanderthals probably during migration Something about modern humans made them survive while the other species didn t MODULE 6 LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about genetic variation in modern humans KEY IDEAS Humans now populate every continent except Antarctica w low population density in areas like desert rainforest amp northern regions of Asia amp N America Race a population that is geographically circumscribed amp genetically differentiated Has its own distinct evolutionary history Considered a subspecies MAIN IDEAS Exoticism Age of Discovery colonoliasm curios etc Saartjie Baartman or the Hottentot Venusquot South African woman taken to London amp displayed exhibited Considered primitive savage bc of her physical features After death French anatomist Cuvier dissected amp displayed her organs until 1974 Linnaeus developed taxonomy amp the Great Chain of Being Classified people as Homo sapiens americanus Hseuropaeus Hs asiaticus amp Hs afer this was later modified expanded Created color stereotypes red white yellow black Positive description of Europeans amp pejorative descriptions of Native American African amp Asian people Racial ideology in the 1700s preDarwin Monogenism believed all races had the same origin Biblical Creation Polygenism believed different races had different origins contradicted the Bible amp was used to justify slavery Comparative craniometry measurement of skulls Modern day used for biological history 1800s used for determining qualities of behavior amp personality people thought skull size brain size intelligence 0 Phrenology 19th century pseudoscience Shape of the skull used to determine someone s mentalbehavioral qualities Kind of like palm reading certain areas corresponded to certain abilities like memory etc 0 Social Darwinism doesn t actually come from Darwin himself Research by Paul Broca amp Samuel George Morton on brain size Concluded that Europeans were smarter than other races men were smarter than women rich smarter than poor criminals often have large brains amp are too smart for their own goodquot French are smarter than Germans Believed poor people women etc are in lower social positions bc they are genetically deficient Brain size comparison People believed in direct correlation between brain size amp intelligence amp used this to try to show that African people who sometimes had smaller brains were closer to monkeys than humans Brain size varies between 12001700 cm2 amp involves many other variables like ratio to body size climate etc No direct correlation to intelligence MODULE 6 LECTURE 2 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about two other fields that connected biology with behavior criminal anthropology and eugenics MAIN IDEAS Criminal anthropology The Criminal Man by Cesara Lombroso 1876 Physiognomy inferring characterbehavior from physical features Atavistic features more evolutionarily primitive features thought to indicate savagery degeneracy natural tendency towards being a criminal Lombroso Thought criminals were their own separate species called Homo delinquens Based on features often common in earlier hominids like unusual height long arms weak chin divergent toe etc Popularized in Ionathan Harker s Dracula character had features that Lombroso described as criminal beaky nose bushy eyebrows large pointed ears Eugenics Greek for good genesquot Idea of controlling society by keeping people with bad genesquot from reproducing Introduced in late 19th century England dominant in early 1900s Principles Humans are unequal This inequality is genetic inherent can t be changed Genetically lesser deficient people should be kept out If it s too late they should be sterilized The Mismeasure of Man by Harvard biologist Steven Gould studied how the eugenics movement justified their practices Reify rei Latin for thing Creating a concept like intelligence that people then think can be measured amp controlled Reification of concept of feeblemindedness by eugenics movement Umbrella term for unfit social intellectual amp behavioral traits Story of Kallikak family generations of feebleminded people used to try to prove geneticism of feeblemindedness Man had children w his wife amp a feebleminded girl he had an affair w children w wife were normal while others were all feebleminded Photos of feebleminded children edited to look less human Failure why Reification Arbitrary who decides what is fit or unfit Hereditarianism assumes all behaviors are purely genetic Time dependent idea of what is fit can change over time SUMMARY Criminal anthropology was never really put into practice but eugenics was Forced sterilization programs in the US amp many European countries Fell from popularity in the US in the 1930s after Great Depression when rich bankers became poor amp returned in Nazi Germany Nazi propaganda warned the gene pool would be diluted by bad genesquot if those people were allowed to reproduce MODULE 6 LECTURE 3 INTRODUCTION This lecture goes into more detail about the biological definition of race and then discusses whether human genetic variation fits with that definition KEY POINTS Back to the definition of race from Lecture 1 a population that is geographically circumscribed all members live in one specific place amp genetically differentiated Races are considered subspecies in binomial nomenclature How races subspecies arise Almost complete geographic amp genetic isolation almost no gene ow w other populations For a period oftime long enough that Differential natural selection amp genetic drift can take place MAIN IDEAS Example of races SubSaharan baboons Multiple races of Papio cynocephalus exist P cynocephalus papio P cynocephalus Anubis P cynocephalus cynocephalus and P cyncocephalus ursin us Same species but live in different places in Africa and are genetically differentiated Expected characteristic of races Discrete genetic variation by geographic regions Distinct populations that are Easy to differentiate Biological genetic differences NOT just caused by adaptation Application to humans They do vary geographically BUT gradually not discretely Ex average skin color gets gradually darker closer to the equator Many traits wo discrete borders blood type DNA that vary independently of each other Ex blood type A is common in many different regions of the world Populations aren t easily identifiable Historically when people tried they started off w three races but then observed variation among those amp started to divide them into more amp more amp more Categories are mostly arbitrary badly defined amp based on a few very superficial traits Skin amp hair colortexture head face nose shape Lack of isolation Myth of the Primitive Isolate belief that ancient humans were genetically isolated amp didn t mate Populations were small but nomadic amp traveled great distances so were not isolated Human history involves lots of migration slave trade empires colonialism etc Modern day humans are even less isolated bc of technology Genetics Superficial characteristics used to categorize races skinhair eye color etc only account for about 610 of someone sDNA Two Europeans or two Africans could be more genetically different from each other than a European amp an Asian Natural selection convergent evolution Many of the features used to determine race are adaptivequot Head shape re ects temperature Nose shape size re ects temp amp humidity Skin color re ects UV exposure vitamin D amp folic acid Body shape re ects temp climate SUMMARY Groups populations of humans vary from each other but these groups do not fit into the biological definition of race MODULE 6 LECTURE 4 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about the features used to categorize races and how they can be explained by adaptation KEY POINTS Adaptation longterm occurs at the population level not in an individual Ex body size shape skin color Acclimatization shortterm occurs in an individual Ex tanning heart rate response to altitude goose bumps shivering sweating vasodilationvasoconstriction MAIN IDEAS Body size adaptation Bergmann s Rule in colder climates body mass increases relative to surface area to conserve heat Ex polar bears vs sun bears Allen s Rule in colder climates length of appendages decreases to conserve heat Ex arctic hare vs regular hare CONCLUSION Individuals experience acclimatization when they travel to a place with a climate different from where they came from Proof of adaptations is seen in human populations depending on whether they live closer or farther to the equator
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