Chapter 7 Notes+Week 5 Lecture Notes
Chapter 7 Notes+Week 5 Lecture Notes ARCH - 10001 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Irene Huda on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH - 10001 - 001 at Kent State University taught by David Hughes (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE in Architecture at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Understanding Architecture Week 5 Chapter 7 VocabularyPeople Ancient Egypt priestarchitect 1 26352595 BCE a Credits Pharaoh Zoser s tomb intro of stone construction invention of pyramid basis for later Western architecture 2 Senmut 15031482 BCE Queen Hatshepsut s Mortuary Temple 3 Ostraka at limestone akes from larger building blocks on which Egyptian architects sketched designs Ancient Greece architect chief builder craftsman 1 Plato architects were directors of workers theoretical knowledgeamp practical skills 2 Daedalus Greek mythical status a Credits Minotaur s labyrinth on Crete mating apparatus for Queen Pasiphaeamp bull feather wings underground steam bath for King Kokkalos Roman Empire architecturepolitical statement 1 Cicero architect in same class as physicianamp teacher 2 9020 BCE so great a profession as this a Credits practicalamp theoretical knowledge high education to achieve plans Ichnographia ground plans laid out w compassamp ruler Orthographia elevation drawings as vertical image of the front Scaenographia perspectives w shadingamp retreating lines converging at vanishing point Collegium trade org for each building operation iron workers brick makers etc Anthemios 500540 CE church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople ellipse drawing Middle Ages architectapprenticeljourneymanljmastermason designeramp contractorbuilder technicalamp practical experience 1 Abbott Haito large sheepskin parchment drawing of ideal monastery layout for Saint Gall Switzerland 2 Guilds orgs that provided training for youthsamp network for transmitting ideas across Europe 3 Villard de Honnecourt designeramp mason journeyman a Credits 82pg scrapbook cathedral at Vaucelles helped w cathedral in Reims 4 Mastermason architectus magister master maestro Meister ingeniator engineer artifeX operarius mechanicus 5 Stoneworker lapicida cementarius lathomus 6 Pierre de Montreuil abbey church of SaintDenis NotreDame in Paris doctor lathomorum professor of freemasons 7 Hugh Libergier cathedral in Reims Renaissance architectClassical humanistartistdesigner theoretical knowledge artisantechnician to scholartheoretician goalorderedamp balanced architecture that might serve as example for later architects 1 pilgrimage to ancient Rome 2 14041472 humanist scholaramp theorist a Credits churchamp palace designs Latin manuscript concerning building 3 1444 1514 artistarchitect Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome pure geometry of Neo Platonism 4 artist architect Sistine Chapel ceiling painting wood model for completing Saint Peter s dome Sebastiano Serlio published illustrated books describing how to proportion Classical orders Bramante s nephew 4 mural frescoes in Vatican Palace School of Athens 7 Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola published illustrated books describing how to proportion Classical orders a Credits 1St plates to show relative proportions of each order based on column s diameter 8 15081580 not classically educated stonemason s apprentice a Credits Giangiorgio Trissino s protege worked w Daniele Barbaro in illustrating Vitruvius translation clearly proportionedamp simple architecture restorations of major Roman ruins 4 Books on Architecture greatest continuing impact of any from Renaissance period 9 small aerial perspective technique w planamp building masses together France Renaissance Classicismljroyal architecture schema 9 5quot 1 Royal Building Administration corps of architectsamp builders to carry out royal building projects a Credits Versailles Marly Jean Baptiste Colbert chief minister administered Royal Building Admin Louis Le Vau 211d to Colbert King Louis XIV s chief architect interior court of Louvre helped prepare 8thfinal design for Louvre s east wing Louvre extension of royal residence in Paris several stages under different royal architects Gian Lorenzo Bemini most famous Roman architect around 1665 won design contest for Louvre s east wing Charles Le Brun King Louis XIV s painter helped prepare 8thfinal design for Louvre s east wing Claude Perrault physicianamp skilled amateur architect helped prepare 8th nal design for Louvre s east wing a Credits publication on his interpretation of 5 Classical orders 8 Royal Academy of Architecture created in 1671 became Ecole des BeauxArts provided architectural instruction for students worldwide in 1800samp early 1900s path to success in architecture profession 9 Grand Prix de Rome coveted award that ensured winner would get successive publicbuilding commissionsamp appt to teach at Ecole des BeauxArts England architects gentleman amateurs wealthy traveled wellread aristocrats or pro architects trained in of ces but littleno theoretical edu normal pathapprenticeamp assistant in an architect s of ce 1 Richard Boyle Third Earl of Burlington 16941753 aristocratic patron studied Palladio s work in Italy a Credits his own Chiswick House based on Palladio s Villa Rotonda 2 Henry Holland 17451806 pro architectamp builder educated by architect father 3 Sir John Soane 17531837 combo of pro architectamp aristocrat builder s son trained in architectural offices of George Dance the Younger and Henry Holland attended art lectures at Royal Academy of Arts participated in Academy s design competitions supervised training of 40 young architects in his office a Credits marking emergence of modern architect in England architect to Bank of England ingenious solutions to structuralamp lighting problems overhead skylights lightweight hollow clayamp plaster domes American Colonies architects gentlemanamateurs no payment for work only loveamp satisfaction 1 Peter Harrison wealthy merchant selftaught architect 2 Thomas J efferson best known American gentlemanamateur architect studied Palladioamp Italian United States architectstrained by other architects bc no architectural schools 1 J oseph J acques Ram e pro trained architect emigrated from Europe 2 J oseph Francois Maguin protrained architect emigrated from Europe 3 Benjamin Henry Latrobe bomamp trained in England went to US in 1797 a Credits most significant impact in US 1St modern pro architect in US Baltimore Cathedral 4 Modern pro architect makes living only designing buildings for others to construct practicalamp theoretical training school in an office on job site supervises construction to ensure plan followthrough gets paid monetary fee based on cost of building being constructed 5 Ithiel Town traveled to supervise bridge constructions that used his patented truss pattern a Credits truss pattern partnership w Alexander Jackson Davis1st American architectural firm 6 Richard Morris Hunt 1St American architect to attend Ecole des BeauxArts 1845 7 Henry Hobson Richardson 211d American architect to attend Ecole des BeauxArts 1860 Modern Day architectpro status equivalent to medical doctorsamp lawyers of cial licensing exams 1 General building contractor signs contract to agree to erect proposed buildings exactly as specified in agreed to drawingsamp written specifications at agreedupon price 2 Subcontractors examine engineeringamp structural aspects provide building materials createamp install heatingamp cooling systems make finishesamp furnishings of completed building International Modern movement included Walter Gropius Max Taut J J P Oud etc 4 Hassan Fathy Egyptian architect rediscovered traditional adobe mud brick architecture of Egypt used it for housing clustersamp public buildings Geoffrey Bawa referred to traditional vernacular Sri Lankan village council house in new Parliament building for Sri Lanka 19791982 Julia Morgan American architecture pioneer early 1900s Marion Mahony Griffin American architecture pioneer early 1900s Eleanor Raymond architect mid1900s Natalie de Blois architect mid1900s 5 gt195 541 s 0909 10 11 12 Zaha Hadid 1St woman to win Pritzker Prize 2004 born in Baghdad trained at Architectural Assoc in London later partner in Office of Metropolitan Architecture w Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas now has indep office in London Pritzker Prize started in 1979 recognizes distinguished achievement globally Kazuyo Sejima 211d woman to win Pritzker Prize 2010 shared prize w husbandpartner at Sejima Nishizawa and Associates SANAA Lecture Notes Site design program useamp square footage Site data boundaryamp topography 0 Site surveydone by surveyor who findsamp draws boundary lines I Survey also finds degrees of each angle total of 360 degrees amp length of each side 0 Topographyfinds slope of site usually unnoticeable bc gradual change over long distance I Determines distance in feet abovebelow sea level 0 Comprehensive surveyboundaryamp topography natural conditions trees rocks slope bodies of water manmade conditions zoning code 0 Natural Featurestreesamp slope 0 Locationamp Size 0 Orientationbased on scenicoutside views sun sunrisehigh noonsunset amp wind direction I Might need to remove trees by chopping or bulldozing ampor grade smooth site 0 Requires access from public street 0 Consider amenities ex parkingamp landscape Parts of a residential home 0 Public Space I Entertainment living rm dining rm kitchen I Personal bedrms study I Ancillary closets bathrms laundry rm I Circulation foyer hallway stairs 0 Private Space I Master Suite areas to sleep dress sit bathrm closet I Children s bedrmsamp closets I Bathrm I Laundry rm Scale vs Site Highrise Apturban 2story 1fam housesuburban but also could be urbanamp rural 4 story multifam dwelling Maybe urbanamp suburban 57 rm 1fam house Maybe suburbanamp rural 1520 rm 1fam house Maybe suburbanamp rural Classical Orders Greeceamp Rome 0 Doricdull at top 0 Ionicinterestingvolutespiral 0 Corinthiancomplex owery OOOOO
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