Lecture 10 and 11
Lecture 10 and 11 Biol 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natasha on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 202 at St. Cloud State University taught by Schoenfuss, Heiko in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Biol 202 Lecture 10 Hyline Elastic Fibrocartilage Developmental embryo Ear Intervertebral disks Ribs Skeletal System parts Bones Joints Ligaments Cartilages Functions of bones Support Protection Movement Store minerals and calcium Site for red blood cell development Bones are classified based on shape Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Long bone anatomy macroscopic We have two types of bone compact bone and spongy bone Diaphysis Epiphysis Medullary cavity Articular cartilage Periosteum Blood vessels We need spongy bone to decrease our mass We would be really heavy if we were all compact bone Bone cells 0 Osteoblastscreate new bone 0 Osteocytes mature cells in bone to maintain bone structure 0 Osteoclasts breakdown bone 0 Osteogenic precursor to osteoblasts and osteoclasts Microscopic anatomy of bone 0 Osteon Haversian system 0 Composed of canal and volkman s 0 Central Haversian canal 0 Run along the same axis as the bone 0 Perforating Volkman s canal 0 Connecting channel Lacunae Lamellae Canaliculi Bone formation 0 Fibrous membrane with cells communicate 0 Cells within membranous convert to osteoblasts and produce an organic matrix and become trapped 0 Now they are osteocytes 0 Surrounded by additional osteoblasts that could lead to more bone growth Start with ossification and expand outward Contain osteogenic cells to permit additional bone growth Can fill the holes with red blood cells Endochondral ossification 0 Baby bone will get invaded and trigger cartilage cells to expand 0 Cartilage is internally destroyed 0 Blood vessels invaded with bone precursor and the osteoclasts breaks down the cartilage and the osteoblasts and lays down for bone growth Additional growth 0 Cartilage cells undergo mitosis 0 Older cartilage cells enlarge 0 Matrix becomes calcified cartilage dies 0 New bone formation Biol 202 Lecture 11 TEST ON TUESDAY 0 Need ID and a pencil 0 70 questions 0 10 from each lecture and 10 review questions Bone Tissue 39 Spongy 0 Compact Bone needs a good blood supply Osteocytes always need oxygen They get oxygen from diffusion They are close to the central canal so they can get oxygen if they get too far away then they will die from lack of oxygen and nutrients Intramembranous ossification like sowing a field with crops happens fast over a large area Endochondral ossification planting one tree All metabolic processes happen inside a cell Intramembranous ossification 0 Stem cells aggregate and differentiate into osteoblasts 0 Then osteoblasts secrete matrix that forms spicules 0 The spicules expand blood vessels and osteoblasts and trapped and are now osteocytes 0 Tissue forms spongy bone that can be remodeled to compact bone over time Endochondral ossification 0 The little bubbles represent dead cartilage 0 Osteoblasts the bone collar cells inside die 0 Blood vessels deposit osteoblasts 0 Osteoclasts get into cavity and grow in width and length Complicated process that can take around 20 years The wider the plate the more growth that can occur Gymnasts that train too young can stunt their growth the bone from the primary and secondary ossification meet Two bones come together and are covered by hyaline cartilage or articular cartilage It can wear down which is why knee pain or replacement surgeries happen Changes in the human skeleton 0 In embryos the skeleton is hyaline cartilage 0 Much of the cartilage is replaced by bone 0 Found in 0 Bridge of nose 0 Parts of ribs 0 Joints Bone growth 0 Epiphyseal growth plates allow growth of long bone during childhood 0 New cartilage is continuously being made 0 Old cartilage becomes ossified 39 Cartilage is broken down I Bone replaces the cartilage 0 Bones are remolded in a never ending process 0 Bones change shape somewhat 0 Bones grow in width after age 20 I Stronger and bigger in order to carry our body weight Bones grow in size as well as diameter Osteoclasts never slow down Osteoblasts and osteocytes are fast when we are young but slow down as we age Osteoporosis can be slowed down with diet exercise and calcium OOOO Bone fractures 0 Bone breaks 0 Types of fracture 0 Closed simple fractures break does not penetrate the skin 0 Open compound fractures broken bone does penetrate the skin 0 Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization 0 Realign the bone 39 Start the healing process A rod of screw can be added to bad breaks Common types of fractures 0 Comminuted 0 Compression 0 Depression Impacted Spinal Tree break Repair of bone fractures 0 Hematoma blood filled swelling is formed blood fills the space 0 Passive process 0 Side effect of the break but it also helps in healing 0 The break is splinted by fibrocartilage in order to form a callus 0 Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by bony callus 0 Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch of bone
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