Week 1 Lecture Notes
Week 1 Lecture Notes FHS 330
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Endo on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FHS 330 at University of Oregon taught by Kerrie Walkters in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Individual and Group Intervention I in Child and Family Studies at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
FHS 330 Kerrie Walters Week 1 Lecture Notes An Ecological Look Individual 0 The person without social context 0 Ex genetics temperament and current skill level etc 0 NOT actually possible Microsystem o The people and communities with whom an individual comes into direct contact 0 Ex family classroom little league team Mesosystem o Interconnections between the different microsystems 0 Ex communication between a teacher and a parent Exosystem 0 Setting that do not directly involve the person but which exert in uence on the person 0 Any structural things that we deal with access to health care opportunities etc 0 Where our privilege comes out our ability to not notice things 0 Ex job opportunities public policy access to services Macrosystem 0 Social bluepring 0 Ex cultural values belief systems societal norms gender role socialization race relations etc Intervention and Prevention Using an ecological framework 0 O O 0 individuals operae within the context of their environments individuals and their environments are continually ineracting and changing individuals are active participants in their development changes in one ecological system in uence changes in other systems Definition of the term At Riskquot 0 O 0 We use the term atriskquot to denote a set of presumed cause effect dynamics that place the individual child or adolescent in danger of negative future events Atrisk designates a situation that is not necessarily current although it is often used in this sense too but that can be anticipated in the absence of intervention Ex I Young people who use tobacco are at risk for alcohol use Young people who use alcohol are at risk for drug abuse Youth who have poor school attendance or have been suspended are at risk for dropping out of school At Risk Youth 0 What groups are especially vulnerable or underserved and why I Impoverished 9 not a lot of resources Minorities9 whether it s race and ethnicity or sexual orientation extra stress institutionally societal etc I Trauma Disabilities Youth Problem Behavior like the ecological model in tree form se r Skills 0 YOU 3 c Q 0 C3 gt N g c a Family Socioeconomic Status Economic Climate Culture Technology A progressive developmental Model of Aggressionand Violence Edy m m W I I Economic Factors 39 Roiodfon of Adult Norms quot1 Lack otAduIt BOMi Q napalm of low RH hon Conduct and Poor Inconsistent Cow and miquot and Ineffectual D Aggression quotquot mm Parental Disc39pl ne Problems 39 5quot Hquot W 39 at Home and h M Commitment to om Training in mm 39 P 0 Behavior Rotodlon by 37 InnRisk Pools Ecological Emrionmental aid Cum Factors Soc Mcwhn m a at 200 g 11 Adude mm P mmn can 5 Innp r959 Video Shell Shocked Common Risk Factors 0 Macro I Norms that favor antisocial behavior and drug use living under systems of oppression classism racism sexism o EXO I Lack of employment opportunities lack of resources lack of available prosocial activities unsupervised free time availability of drugs access to violent video games exposure to neighborhood violence 0 Meso I Lack of strong connections between home school and pers 0 Micro I Poor parentchild relationships Family con ict unhealthy family dynamics I Academic problems at school I Peer group rejection deviant peer cluster 0 Indiv I Trauma I Low emotional regulations kills sensation seeking poor impulse control poor interpersonal skills Common Protective Factors 0 Macro I Surrounded by prosocial norms and values protected from oppressive systems 0 Exo I Opportunities for education employment other prosocial activities safe neighborhood little unmonitored free time o Meso I Strong connection between school and home peers and parents 0 Micro I Social support system strong schools prosocial peers neighborhood connections I Positive attachment to parents and family healthy family interactions effective parental monitoring 0 Indiv I High social and emotional competence low stress problem solving skills I Positive attitude temperament Youth Problem Behavior 0 Let s just take a closer look at tow issues I Violence and drug use 0 As you listen to this part of the lecture recognize the similarities in the quotsoilquot and quotrootsquot Environmental and social factors 0 The quotsoilquot that nurtures early problem behavior I Poverty I Racism I Community and interpersonal violence I Lack of educational a job opportunities I The dissolution of communities I Interpersonal and family problems Neighborhood 0 Neighborhood behavior norms I Including gang involvement 0 Economic marginalization I Which lead to vandalism crime gang activity and violence 0 Racism homophobia and marginalization I Higher levels of personal victimization including the presence of hate groups and hate crimes Access to Weapons 0 The availability of guns makes youth violence more lethal I And provides access to potential school shooters 0 States with high gun availability have 250 more shooting murders of children 0 Metal detectors are not effective students know how to get around them and provide false security Family Environment 0 Families in poor communities are a greater risk for violent behavior I Often low education resources and problem solving skills I Increased stress such as economic difficulties and family disorder 0 Parent patterns can lead to antisocial behavior I Negative and hostile interaction styles lead to poor parent child bonding I Coercive and violent behaviors may be modeled and reinforced by family members Family In uence 0 Parental correlates of teen substance use include I Low parent monitoring high in uence I Poor parentchild relationship I Deficient parental limit setting I Weak problemsolving and communication skills I Parental substance use I Lenient attitudes about alcohol I Authoritative and punitive parenting School Environment 0 There is a strong relationship between antisocial behanior and poor academic performance 0 Due to their behavior these student have less learning opportunities I Disruptive behavior less ontask behavior I Timeouts and suspensions less time in classroom Peer In uence 0 Peers are a VERY strong in uence on a youth s drug use and delinquency o For drug use for ex I Provide info about drugs I Shape attitudes towards them I Create a social context for their use I Give rationales for using them I Make them available 0 Peer cluster theory emphasizes that deviant behavior is linked to peer relationships Peer cluster effect 0 The peer cluster is a major training ground for attitudes beliefs and behavior I Deviant peers hence supply the attitudes motivation rationalization and opportunities for engaging in antisocial behaviors o Delinquent peers reinforce deviant behavior and punish behavior that is socially conforming Personal in uence 0 Individual characteristics associated with delinquency pervasive substance use I Pleasure and sensation seeking behaviors Rebelliousness need for excitement I An acute desire for independence and autonomy I Low interpersonal trust I Low impulse control With poor ability to delay gratification Onset of Delinquent Behavior 0 Early startersquot first arrest before age 14 0 Late startersquot first arrest after age 14 0 youth who being delinquent activities early are at greatest risk for becoming chronic offenders 0 this is why prevention is so important Resiliency o Resiliency is one s capacity to adapt successfully in presence of risk and adversity o Overcoming the oddsquot 0 Resilience is the outcome of an interactive process I Based on level of exposure to risk I Presence or absence of protective factors What contributes to resilience 0 Families 0 Social environment 0 Individualcharacteristics Unethical to Consider Intervention Without Prevention why Ed R an M cadu cut d mud quotquotquotquotquot Economic Factors 39 Reicc on of Adult I Noun 1 Lack ofAdult Bond39ng Motion of low Rik has Conduct and Poor Inconsistent Coming and mm and lnelfectual Aggression quotquot mm Parental Disc39pline Problems 32 Failure at Home my Commitment to 0m Pee CI tar Training in mm ial 3 Behavior Reledlon b lowRisk Peon Ecological Env39mnmontal and Cum Factors Sn Mcwhmr or al 2007 Fag ml Ad39npfod ham Parkman Dv mh 5 innp IVE Prevention Spectrum 0 Three Levels of Prevention I Universal Desirable for everyone in the population Selective see also Selected Desirable when individual is a member of a subgroup of the population whose risk is higher due to that membership Indicated see also quotTargetedquot Desirable when a group member manifests a risk factor condition or abnormality that identifies them individually as being at high risk for the future development of disease or disorder Ack My head is hurting o The ecological model give us a structure to conceptualize these risk and protective factors to better understand both etiology and targets for prevention Definitions of EBP o The most widely cited definition of Evidence Based Practive is that of the Institute of medicine 2001 adapted from Sackett et al 200 quotEvidencebased practice is the integration of best research I evidence with clinical expertise and patient valuesquot Shared Conceptualization of EvidenceBased Practice for Behavioral Health chow9rd Pmcku 2008 Problem with EBP studies 0 Referred youths often have high levels of comorbidity and cooccurring problems 0 This comorbidity is often combined with shifts in the nature of the most pressing problems during episodes of treatment 0 Most EBPs are not set up to deal with comorbidity and this type of task switching o OCD gun control Caregivers and Families 0 Clinic based families are usually complex often facing an oppressive system and presenting with multiple environmental obstacles 0 Parents own mental health challenges can significantly interfere with the effectiveness of treatment 0 quotClinicians providing usual clinical care is such situations may blend agility exibility and considerable case management in efforts to help youngsters and families reach a few specific practical goals that are sometimes only tangentially related to the identified patient s diagnosisquot External Factors 0 Insurance and reimbursement for quotbillable hoursquot only 0 Provider organizations Can either encourage or discourage EBPs Often high turnover rate why train people Potential for multiple service settings 0 Pediatric primary care child welfare and schools Defining Least Restrictive Environment 0 Each public agency must ensure that I To the maximum extent appropriate children with disabilities are educated with children who are nondisabled and special classes separate schooling or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education is regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily Placement decisions must be based on a child s unique needs and IEP not on administrative convenience disability program label or allocation of funds What about the relationships Relationship Building 0 We known there is strong research support for therapeutic alliance as a core ingredient in creating positive treatment outcomes 0 But how do we effectively build this alliance I With children I With teens I With parents 0 We know there is strong research support for therapeutic alliance as a core ingredient in creating positive treatment outcomes 0 But how do we effectively build this alliance I With children who have been abused I With teens who are incarcerated I With parents in crisis or chaos Empowerment o the process by which people organizations or groups who are powerless or marginalized I a become aware of the power dynamics at work in their life context I b develop the skills and capacity for gaining some reasonable control over their lives I c which they exercise I d without infringing upon the rights of others I e which coincides with supporting the empowerment of others in their community McWhirter 1994 p12 5 Cs of Empowerment 0 Collaboration definition of problem and solution is collaborative and consistent with client values goals skills and abilities client viewed as active member of team not passive recipient o Competence all clients are competent or have some strengths Identify these strengths competencies help them practice it 0 Community become aware of client s community and any new community that might be helpful for them ex put a femal client in touch with some women s groups o Context Essentially the client s social context eg racism sexism classism ageism homophobia ablebodied assumption 0 Critical consciousness Helping client to better see their own social context and ongoing attempt by helper to uncover their own biases and bliefs based on their privilege including selfcritique seeking critical feedback from clients