Mod. 5 Lectures 6-8
Mod. 5 Lectures 6-8 ASM 104
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Hsu on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASM 104 at Arizona State University taught by Campisano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Bones, Stones/Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
MODULE 5 LECTURE 6 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about the anatomy of modern Homo sapiens KEY POINTS Oldest anatomically modern H sapiens found in two sites in Ethiopia They originated in Africa amp dispersed around the world from about 15010 thousand years ago Populations became genetically distinct after dispersal as they continue to migrate in different directions there is isolation genetic drift recombination gene ow etc MAIN IDEAS Cranial features Average capacity of 1350 cm2 Vertical not sloping frontal bone amp parallel sides generally rounded skull Superciliary arch replaces brow ridge Canine fossa hole above the canine where the root goes No occipital torus or bun Face completely below the brain case No retromolar gap Chin not present in any other hominins Bipedalism Refined stride gait Fine coordination in hands Less robust skeleton w decreased muscles in upper limbs Discoveries Kibish Formation in Omo Ethiopia Partical crania dated 196 thousand years old Herto Ethiopia dated 165 thousand years ago Qafzeh Cave in Israel about 100115 thousand years ago Skhul Cave in Israel 90 thousand years ago CroMagnon Rock shelter in France 30 thousand years ago 58 individuals found in 1868 Aurignacian tools more complex than Neanderthal tools Seashells amp animal teeth used for jewelry decoration Bones of mammoths lions amp reindeers Behavioral modernity Pinnacle Point cave site South Africa date 160 thousand years old Earliest evidence of humans eating shellfish Complex stone tools treated w heat to strengthen Blombos Cave site South Africa dated 80 thousand years old Engraved ochre engraved ostrich egg shells amp shell beads Evidence of symbolism amp passing knowledge from generation to generation Hunting gathering Large herbivores like mammals used for meat hides sinew bone antlers amp ivory Shelters Shelters made of mammoth bones amp wood Hearths amp pits for food storage Large populations living close together Ideology Art objects left in graves jewelry etc Engraved teeth Carved figurines Death Some graves had bone shell or stone artifacts Estimated life expectancy of 40 women amp 55 men high child mortality rate Diseases dental abscess hydrocephaly no epidemics or much fighting Major changes over time in Homo Increasing complexity of stone tools Increasing brain size Decreasing tooth size Development of modern human behavior MODULE 5 LECTURE 7 IINTRODUCTION This lecture is about fossil DNA KEY POINTS Living humans have very low genetic diversity average of 2 This is bc we all share a recent common ancestor from about 150200 thousand years ago when there was probably a bottleneck event MAIN IDEAS mtDNA Has about 1 mutation every 10 thousand years Only passed down through the female line Every living human s mtDNA line is traceable to a single female Probably an African female since living African populations have greater mtDNA diversity meaning African mtDNA has been evolving longer amp split from other populations earlier Shows that Neanderthals amp modern humans split 550700 thousand years ago Led people to think Neanderthals weren t ancestral to modern humans Max Planck Institute in Germany found that all modern humans except Africans have 14 Neanderthal DNA due to Neanderthals interbreeding w humans that had left Africa East Asians have higher of Neanderthal DNA bc first introgression ow of Neanderthal genes into human gene pool occurred in Europeans amp East Asians but second introgression occurred only in East Asians Genes acquired from Neanderthals Lighter skin amp hair bc they lived in colder northern climates than Africans Autoimmune diseases including Type II diabetes Smoking Optic disc size Hybrids were often sterile MODULE 5 LECTURE 8 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about two recently discovered species hobbits amp denisovans MAIN IDEAS Island rule on an island small animals tend to get larger amp large animals get smaller Homo oresiensis one of most recent Homo species discoveries 2004 Possibly last Homo species to go extinct Isolated on Indonesian island of Flores existed until about 12 thousand years ago Very small hominins that originated from Homo erectus Straight forehead amp round cranium but only about 426 cm2 capacity No chin Large feet relative to legs height Used sophisticated tools amp ate large animals including komodo dragons amp giant rats Some researchers thought it was a Homo sapiens population suffering from microcephaly but it is now widely accepted to be a separate species Denisovans discovered in 2008 Found in Denisova Cave in Altai Mountains of Siberia Russia Originally assumed to be Homo sapiens but DNA showed it was neither Homo sapiens or Neanderthal Probably diverged about 800 thousand years ago differing brain function amp development Some living humans have a small of Denisovan DNA but higher on autosomes inherited equally from both parents than on X chromosomes inherited more often from mother Possible explanations Male Denisovans mated w female Homo sapiens Denisovans amp H sapiens weren t genetically compatible so natural selection got rid of some X chromosomes