Chapter 2 PSY 260
Popular in Developmental Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Janina Jolley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
I Developmental Theories A NatureNurture 1 Believes in nature a Genetic makeup b Genesevolution c Milestone happen at similar times due to maturational forces 2 Believes in nurture a Emphasize environment b Physical crowdingpopulation c Social learning experiences peer in uences d Milestones happen at different time for different people due to expe ence B ActivityPassivity 1 Humans create their own development active 2 Shaped beyond control by environmentalbiology passive C ContinuityDiscontinuity 1 Continuity a Lifelong development small step not sudden b Gradual and quantitive 2 Discontinuity a Series of growth spurts b Stages rapid transitions D Universalcontext speci city 1 Universal a All children have intellectual development as they enter adolescence midlife crisis 2 Context a Vary in time between cultures ll Freud Psychoanalytic Theory A Instincts and unconscious motivation 1 Biological urges or drives that must be satis ed 2 Newborns sel sh and aggressive 3 Unconscious motivational instincts B Id ego and superego 1 Id a Impulsive irrational sel shsatisfy instinct b Immediate grati cation 2 Ego a Realistic ways of gratifying instincts b Begins in infancy c Children become more capable of postponing pleasures 3 Superego a Internalized moral standards b Begins to develop around 36 years of age c Socially acceptable behaviors C Psychosexual stages 1 Oral stage birth1yr a Mouth as source of sexual pleasure b Oral grati cation 2 Anal Stage 13 a b Potty training Allow some grati cation and allow child some impulse control 3 PhaIIic Stage 36 a b Genitals OedipusElectra Complex 4 Latency Period a 612 year old tame sexual urges 5 Genital Stage a Puberty D Strengths and weaknesses 1 Many of Freud39s broader aspectstheories III Erikson NeoFreudian Psychoanalytic Theory A Erik Erikson 1 Theory compared to Freud s a Inner dynamic of personality same b Less emphasis on sexual urges c d More positive view on human nature e Rational ego and adaptive powers More development after adolescence B Psychosocial Stages 1 8 major psychosocial stages a g h Trust vs mistrust i If infants can rely on other people to take care of needs ii Responsiveness was critical to later development Autonomy i Sense of self Initiative i PIantackIe big projects Industry i Master academicsocial skills Identity vs roIe confusion i Youth identity crisis ii Gendersexuality religion career Intimacy vs isolation i Ready to form long term relationships Generativity vs stagnation Sense that one can produce something that will outIive them Integrity vs despair Find meaning in life that will help them face death C Strengths and weaknesses 1 People nd Erikson39s in uences easier to accept than Freud39s 2 Vague and dif cult to test Section 24 I Learning Theories A Watson Classical Conditioning 1 Conditioning Experiment a Dogs saIivate at sight of food the bell is sounded each time dog was given meat It then learned to salivate when bell was wrung b Conditioned rat to fear oud sounds unethical c Emotional responses can be learned d Fears can be unlearned B Operant Conditioning Skinner 1 Operant Conditioning a Learner39s behavior becomes wither more or less probable depending on consequences it produces b People tend to repeat behaviors that have a desirable consequence and curt down on behaviors with undesirable consequences c Can learn new skills and all kinds of habits good and bad 2 Reinforcement a Positive reinforcement desirable even that when introduced following a behavior makes that behavior more probable b Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavioral tendency is strengthened because something unpleasant or undesirable is removed from the situation or is avoided c Positive punishment Occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is the consequences of a behavior d Negative punishment Occurs when a desirable stimulus is removed following the behavior 3 Consequences a Administered pleasant stimulus Positive reinforcement adding a pleasant stimulus Letting whiny kid play Nintendo whining more likely to happen again b Administered unpleasant stimulus Positive punishment add unpleasant stimulus Calls kid a baby less likely to whine c Withdrawn pleasant stimulus Negative punishment withdrawing a pleasant stimulus Take video game d Withdrawn unpleasant stimulus Negative reinforcement withdrawing unpleasant stimulus Kid jealous of sister whines to get attention C Bandura Social Cognitive Theory 1 Social Cognitive Theory a Children and adults can learn novel responses merely by observing the behavior of a model b More cognitive than conditioning learners need to pay attention and remember mental presentation 2 Latent learning a Learning occurs but is not evident in behavior 3 Vicarious reinforcement a A process in which learners become more or less likely to perform a behavior based on experience observed of model were reinforcing or punishing 4 Selfef cacy a Belief that they can effectively produce a particular desired out come 5 Reciprocal determinism a Notion in social cognitive theory that the environment may affect the person but the persons characterbehavior may affect the environment 6 Bandura View a Maintains that development is context speci c and proceeds along many paths b Continuous c Children of same age will develop differently D Strengths and Weaknesses 1 Rarely show that learning is responsible for commonly observed developmental changes 2 Too little emphasis on biological in uences on development ll Piaget Cognitive Development Theory A Constructivism 1 Viewed intelligence as a process that helps an organism adapt to its environment 2 Children actively construct their own understandings of the world based on their experiences Stages of Cognitive development 1 Sensorimotor a lnfants deal with world directly through their perceptions and ac ons 2 Preoperational stage a Developed capacity for symbolic thought but not yet capable of logical problem solving b Egocentric thinkers c Conservation Recognition that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when appearance is altered 3 Concrete operations stage a More logical use a trial and error approach b Can mentally categorize or mentally addsubtract objects 4 Formal operations stage a Able to think more abstractly and hypothetically b De ne things in terms of fairness c Systematic and scienti c method of problem solving Strengths and weaknesses 1 Critics say development proceeds at different rates for different problems 2 Underestimate cognitive abilities of young children 3 Too little emphasis on socialcultural in uence Other perspectives 1 2 Sociocultural perspective a Cognitive development is shaped by the sociocultural context in which it occurs b Cognitive development is not the same universally Information processing approach a Explains mind as a computer software that examines fundamental processes attention to memory decision making performing cognitive tasks ability to process and store information lll Theories in perspective A Psychoanalytic Theory Freud 1 2 3 4 5 Message a Biological based instincts 5 psychosexual stages Nature vs Nurture a Biology driven Activity vs passivity a Passive Continuity vs discontinuity a Discontinuous Universality vs context a Universal B Psychanalytic Theory Erikson 1 2 3 4 5 Message a 8 psychosocial con icts Nature vs nurture a Nature and nurture equally Activity vs passivity a Active Continuity vs discontinuity a Discontinuous Universality vs context a Universal C Learning Theory Skinner39s behavioral Theory 1 4 5 Message a Learning from consequences of one s behavior through operant conditioning Nature vs nurture a Mostly nurture Activity vs passivity a passive Continuity vs discontinuity a Continuous Universality vs context a context D Learning Theory Bandura Social Cognitive Theory 1 2 3 Message a Development product of cognition Nature vs nurture a nurture Activity vs passivity 4 5 a Active Continuity vs discontinuity a Continuous Universality vs context a Context E Cognitive Development Theory Piaget39s Constructivism 1 2 3 4 5 Message a 4 stages of cognitive development Nature vs nurture a More nature Activity vs passivity a Active Continuity vs discontinuity a Discontinuous Universality vs context a Universal F Systems theories Bronfenbrenner s bioecological Model 1 2 3 Message a Development takes many directions Nature vs nurture a Nature and nurture equally Activity vs passivity a Active Continuity vs discontinuity a Both Universality vs context a Context
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