The neuroscience of sexual development
The neuroscience of sexual development PSYC 370
Popular in Behavioral Neuroscience
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ronni Cox on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 370 at Kansas taught by Nancy Hamilton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
The neuroscience of sexual development and gender identity Hormones the other chemical messenger 0 Hormones are partially or Wholly responsible for the following behaviorscharacteristicsprocesses I Expression of primary and secondary sex differences I Conception pregnancy lactation I Sexual differentiation of the brain I Muscle development I Sexual behavior I Eating drinking voiding I Sleeping I Emotions 0 Basically hormones help you do almost everything Hormones V neurotransmitters o The defining feature of hormone V neurotransmitter is in how they are released and the type of that are receptors activated 0 Not brain vs body both hormones e g cortisol and neurotransmitters act in the brain 0 Not CNS vs PNS many neurotransmitters e g acetylcholine are active in the peripheral nervous system 0 Not the substance itself some substances can act as both neurotransmitters and neurohormones e g epinephrine cortisol o WHAT IS IT 0 o Targets e g I Gonads I Mammary glands muscle tissue brain WHAT IS IT 0 0 Target dendritic receptors I Just the t1p n on39t Worry any Types of hormones 0 Steroid hormones 0 Cholesterol is the common precursor I Comes from your diet I If you don t produce cholesterol your body would not be able to create other hormones I Eat your cheerios But not too much o Adrenal corteX hormones I M These are probably really important o Gonadal hormones I M These are probably really important Behavioral neuroscience key players 0 Brain CNS Hypothalamus amygdala pre optic regions 0 Body gonads o Ovaries and testes 0 Behavior targets 0 Reproductive system 0 Structures associated with secondary seX characteristics Behavioral endocrinology 0 Study of the relationship between hormones and the nervous system 0 First experiment Berthold 1849 o Castrated roosters found that they no longer engaged in sexstereotyped behavior e g crow approach females act aggressively o Reimplanted one testicle in the body cavity reemergence of sexstereotyped behavior 0 Berthold noted that the testis did not reestablish nerve connections 0 Berthold concluded that a chemical produced by the testes and released into the circulatory system in uenced sexstereotyped behavior WWVF1 I 1D PiC EOm What defines malefemale 0 Genotypes o XX or XY 0 Phenotypes o What you look like on the outside I Breasts vagina penis 0 Sexual 0 Doing things more female like or more male like stereotypes 0 Identity Male vs female Simple definition 0 XX Female 0 XY Male The TRUTH o It is not fully based on your genotype Brain body hormone connections 0 Complicated 0 Typical brain hormone connection Brain 9 hormone 9 target organstissues Brain 9 hormone 9 endocrine gland 9 hormone 0 Sexual development Ovariestestes 9 hormones 9 targets in brain and peripheral tissues I Behavior is related to gend r more than sex XX XY what are the differences 0 Gonads o Ovaries testes o Ducts o XX Uterus vagina fallopian tubes 0 XY seminal vesicles vas deferens Body Cavity quot Erectile 39 i quot Tissue L Gland External reproductive organs 0 Labia clitoris o Penisscrotum Secondary sex characteristics 0 Breasts shoulders hips body hair GlansPenis Iquot VasDeferens Epididymis Scrotum Testis 0 Ya know The stuff that shows up when puberty happens 0 Brain 0 Size slight differences in anatomical structures e g and lateralization How do you make a man Must begin by looking at prenatal development 0 Female is the default gender due to the lack of testosterone Build a man Forget about going to BuildABear I want to go to BuildAMani Let s look at the prenatal development store 0 1 Genes XY 0 Gene on Y produces Sry protein I No Y no Sry I YOU NEED A Y CHROMOSOME TO HAVE SRY 2 6 weeks primordial gonads testes o Sry protein 9 medulla Medulla matures into testes Sry protein tells the medulla to develop 3 12 weeks ducts seminal vesicle vas deferens o Testes secrets testosterone I Testosterone causes to develop and testes to descend o Testosterone hits up that Wolffian system and says hey Grow a pair 0 Testes also secrete Mullerian inhibiting substance 9 causes Mullarian system to deteriorate ulinl IUIIlII quotI A r 39 2 I Testosterone hits up the Mullerian system and say hey yo girl stop No girls allowed 0 4 8 weeks External reproductive organs penis and scrotum begin to develop 0 Testes produce a surge of testosterone which causes the bipotential precursor to morph into a penis and scrotum 0 At 12 15 weeks you can see seX differences on sonogram I Scrotum is like a nice housing place for the testicles Question time 0 Why aren t we talking about how to make a woman 0 GENDER EQUALITY 0 ANSWER you make a woman by not making a man 0 Female is the default gender 0 Females develop in the ABSENCE of testosterone Build a woman You want me to confom to your standards as 0 1 Genes XX awomawnsi 390 Wife Thls alnt o No Y no Sry Builda Bitch workshop I SorryNotSorry 0 2 6 weeks Gonads corteX develops into ovary som gsa cci sm 0 3 12 weeks ducts uterus upper vagina fallopian tubes 0 In the absence of testes and thus absence of testosteroneMullerian inhibiting substance the Mullarian system develops and Wolffian system deteriorates 0 4 8 weeks external reproductive organs clitoris labia begin to develop 0 Lack of testestestosterone means that the bipotential precursor will develop into female external genitals o 12 15 weeks sonogram can detect sex Step 5 PUBERTY AKA HELL 0 Secondary sex characteristics body hair beast and penis development 0 Caused by a cascade of hormones from the HPA axis 0 Anterior pituitary 39 Secretes growth hormone 0 9 bonesmuscles 9 growth spurt 0 Has receptors on ovariestestes and releases different hormones based on what you have 0 9 Ovariestestes 9 androgens estrogens Balance determines the direction of development male vs female sex hormones play important roles in the development of both sexes Brains 0 Sex differences 0 Sex hormones released by testes testosterone cause sex differentiation of hypothalamus I Sex differentiation of the hypothalamus determines whether gonadotropins cycle for XX GnRH initiates ovulation and the menstrual cycle or remain at a steady state for XY NA 0 Human XY testes release testosterone which masculinizes the XY hypothalamus Human XX lack or low levels of testosterone does NOT masculinize the XX hypothalamus 0 Other factors 0 XX XY genetic in uences 0 Both estrogens and testosterone have effects on brain development I Different regions of the brain have receptors for sex hormones 0 Trigger cell growth 0 Dendritic branching o Regulate the activity at synapses
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