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Chapter 5: Gender

by: Kaitlyn Mirabella

Chapter 5: Gender PSYC-3390-01

Kaitlyn Mirabella
GPA 3.8
Adolescent Psychology
Fabian, Melinda

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Hey all! Here are the class notes for Chapter 5: Gender! Let me know if you have any questions.
Adolescent Psychology
Fabian, Melinda
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 10/02/15
Chapter 5 Gender 1 Adolescents and gender in traditional cultures 11 Adolescents and gender in American history 111 Socialization and gender in the West IV Gender and globalization Traditional Cultures Adolescent boys and girls in traditional cultures often have very different lives and spend little time in each other s presence From Girl to Woman Girls typically work alongside their mothers from an early age During adolescence socialization narrows for girls while it becomes broader for boys Girls budding sexuality is more likely to be tightly restricted Often closely monitored by older female family members closeknit groups intimate groups close relationships From Boy to Man Manhood is something that has to be achieved no biological marker A de nite possibility of failure How Demonstrate 3 capacities provide protect and procreate 0 Provide the requirement of being able to provide economically for one s self as well as a wide and children 0 Protect the requirement of being able to assist in protecting one s family and community from human and animal attackers o Procreate the requirement of being able to function sexually well enough to produce children These capacities also involve developing character qualities e g diligence courage confidence etc Spend most of their time with other males Not an intimate relationship just hanging out in larger groups a lot of peers and some older males not an intimate fatherson relationship or mentorship Gender in American History Women were discouraged from pursuing a profession because it was considered unhealthy for them 0 Connected to beliefs about menstruation specifically that intellectual work would draw a woman s energy toward her brain and away from her ovariesthus disrupting her menstrual cycle and endangering her health Sharp disparities in the socialization of males and females From Girl to Woman 4 areas where the lives of adolescent girls were narrowly constricted 0 Occupational roles 0 Cultural perceptions of females fragile innocent o Sexuality have to be a virgin until marriage 0 Physical appearance Advantages o A wide range of voluntary organizations run by adult women 9 service projects building relationships between adolescent girls and female mentors developing character qualities From Boy to Man 3 Manhood Transformations expectations for adolescent boys 0 Communal manhood 17th and 18th centuries colonial America I Prepare for adult responsibilities in work and marriage I Small tightly knit communities interdependent o Selfmade manhood 19th century more urbanized America I Expected to become independent from their families I lndividualistic character qualities selfcontrol independent decisionmaker o Passionate manhood 20th century I Passionate emotions anger sexual desire regarded more favorably as part of manhood I Selfexpression selfenjoyment Socialization amp Gender in the West Why are males and females MORE different from each other as adolescence progresses Changes in puberty Changes in socialization Gender intensification hypothesis psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced at adolescence because of intensi ed socialization pressures to conform to the culture s gender roles 0 We start out different biologically by nature We become more different due to nurture Girls looking physically attractive forming intimate friendships Boys being tough aggressive Changes in Gender Attitudes in the US 19772006 0 More egalitarian gender attitudes today but many still have beliefs like those in traditional cultures Gender Socialization Differential gender socialization socializing males and females according to different expectations about what is appropriate for each gender Parents 0 Clothes toys bedrooms encouragediscourage behaviors monitor girls closely Peers 0 Punish with ridicule and unpopularity those who deviate from gender role expectations School 0 Teachers often assume boys and girls are inherently different in interestsabilities Media amp Gender TV movies music Internet social media sites books magazines Magazines very obviously focus on gender socialization especially those read by adolescent girls 0 Heavy focus on appearance 0 Hair makeup fashion etc Promote the traditional female gender role e g beauty how to be attractive to boys Advertisements are mainly for clothes cosmetics weightloss programs For girls magazine exposure related to dissatisfaction with own appearance Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems Girls at risk for negative body image eating disorders Overweight girls may be bullied Boys expected to be verbally aggressive toward peers defend manhood Lowstatus boys suffer insults and humiliations Adolescent boys who value aggressiveness as part of being a man at greater risk for school difficulties alcohol and drug use risky sexual behaviors Cognitive Developmental Theory of Gender Kohlberg 1966 Gender is a fundamental way of organizing information obtained from the world Age 3 Age 4 or 5 Age 6 to 10 Age 12 to 16 Understand themselves as being Perceptions of gender become Perceptions of gender become less Identify things as appropriate for either male or either males or rigid more rigid gender female females intensification gender identity As adolescents become more selfre ective they become more concerned with compliance to gender norms for themselves and others Gender Schema Theory Martin amp Ruble 2004 Gender is one of our most important schemas from early childhood onward By adolescence we have learned to categorize an enormous range of activities objects occupations and personality characteristics as female or male Individuals monitor own behaviorsattitudes to t cultural de nitions Masculinity Femininity amp Androgyny The Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI Bem 1974 Categorization of personality traits Masculine independent competitive feminine tender compassionate Describes traits regarded by most members of the American majority culture as being masculine or feminine A crossnational study of young people in30 countries found similar gender role perceptions Adolescents also value qualities that are not gender speci c e g kind honest Do people have to be either masculine OR feminine Androgyny a combination of masculine and feminine traits An androgynous person has a great repertoire of traits to draw on in their daily lives Adolescents 0 GIRLS androgyny related to positive selfimage 0 BOYS highly masculine boys have more favorable selfimages than androgynous or feminine boys 0 Peer acceptance highest among androgynous girls and masculine boys 0 More of a push for girls to be more masculine than for boys to be more feminine or androgynous A re ection of the culture Gender Roles in American Minority Groups African American Females Female role characteristics re ect difficulties Black women have faced historically 9 selfreliance assertiveness perseverance Black adolescent girls tend to have higher selfesteem and are less concerned with physical appearance than White girls African American Males Historically and currently many have been subjected to insults to their manhood Many adopt extreme characteristics of the male role Toughness detachment pride confidence risktaking aggressiveness These characteristics can be damaging to their relationships Latino Women Highly traditional until recently Take care of children the home be submissive to husband Today Latina women are employed at rates similar to Whites Latino Men Highly traditional Machismo males dominance over females Undisputed head of household Beliefs about Gender Differences Gender stereotypes attribute certain characteristic to others simply on the basis of whether they are male or female College students often evaluate women s work performance less favorably than men s Even when a statistically significant difference exists between males and females for most characteristics there is more similarity than difference Math performance the portion of the bell curve that overlaps is much greater than the portion that is distinct to either gender Why do so many gender stereotypes persist Why do people think of the genders as radically different as opposite sexes 1 Gender schemas shape the way we notice interpret and remember information according to out expectations about the genders a Gender schemas draw out attention to examples that con rm our expectations b We don t look for information that proves us wrong 2 The Social Roles of men and women seem to con rm out beliefs a Social roles theory b Differential gender socialization males amp females develop different skillsattitudes leading to different behaViors c We see different behaViors of males and females and conclude it must be because they are inherently different


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