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Biology of Infectious Diseases

by: Krista Hallenbeck

Biology of Infectious Diseases BIOL O1113

Marketplace > Rowan University > Biology > BIOL O1113 > Biology of Infectious Diseases
Krista Hallenbeck
General Biology: Human Focus
Dr. Thomas

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About this Document

This is the second half of the notes from the week of 9/28
General Biology: Human Focus
Dr. Thomas
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Hallenbeck on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL O1113 at Rowan University taught by Dr. Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Biology: Human Focus in Biology at Rowan University.


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Date Created: 10/02/15
F Single celled organisms lacking a nucleus Proka ryotes 0 Have a cell wall surrounded by a capsule I Can cling to inside of your mouth and cause cavities o Motile bacteria have flagella 0 Some bacteria have fimbrae which allow them to cling to and gain access s to the body Reproduce by replicating their DNA and splitting into two identical cells 0 Double their numbers every 20 minutes 0 A process called Have extra DNA 0 Can be passed between bacteria 0 How antibiotic resistance is passed Some release toxins 0 Ex Tetnis results from toxin released by bacteria that causes it which prevents muscles from relaxing Composed of 0 Nucleic acid core either DNA or RNA 0 A coat of protein molecules called the capsid Not visible with light microscope Size is around a 1A of bacteria Cannot reproduce on their own The 0 Attachment to target cells 0 Entering the cell through phagocytosis o Replication of viral genetic information and assembly of new genetic information in capsids and forms new viral particles 0 Daughter viruses are released form the host cell Fungi protozoa and helminthes also caused disease 0 Fungi include yeasts molds and mushrooms 0 Protozoa are single celled eukaryotic organisms I Many harmless protozoa live in human intestines while others invade the body and disease I Many completely harmless I Ex tapeworm can grow up to 25 feet in intestines caused by infections proteins 0 Kuru o Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease 0 Familial Fatal Insomnia Diseases are called and slowly lead to degeneration of nervous tissues Brain slowly eaten away Infection refers to o The state of being infected by a microorganism o The process of being infected Disease is changed from the health state of the body Pathogens differ in their ability to caused disease Pathogenicity is a microorganism s ability to 0 Enter the host s tissues 0 Cause change resulting in poor health causes disease only when the host s defenses are suppressed occur in a small region to small number of individuals spread a larger than normal number of individuals in a large population An population A occurs worldwide Sexually transmitted virus that causes AIDS 0 Attacks helper T cells and impairs the immune system 0 Two strains HIV 1 and HIV 2 Attachment spikes bind to CD4 receptors on plasma membrane Fusion Entry quotuncoatingquot where capsid and protein occurs Reverse transcription DNA is made from RNA a Retro Viruses DNA from RNA 5 Integration 0 double stranded DNA is integrated into the host s DNA creating a provirus a Travel to the nucleus for this to happen b The form HIV is transmitted in 6 Biosynthesis and cleavage provirus is activated 7 Assembly 8 Budding a Macrophages first to being infected b Move to lymph node until it deteriorates Very likely came from chimpanzees in Southern Cameroon Africa 0 They suffer from a similar virus called SIV The first documented case appeared in 1959 but the virus may have been around much earHer 0 First documented case in the US was in 1969 is a disease that occurs to a larger number of individuals within a small PWN I Not until 1982 that term AIDS coined Number of cases of AIDS in the US increased dramatically from 1981 until present 0 HIV infection is a global epidemic o It is believed that nearly about 1 millions people in the US are infected with HIS o The incidence of AIDS is particularly high in sub Saharan Africa AIDS is a progressive disease that exhibits three distinct phases 0 Asymptomatic phase can last 9 months 0 Acute phase I CD4 T cell count is high 0 Chronic Phase I CD4 Tcell count beings to decline and symptoms appear 0 Full blown AIDS I HIV has become AIDS when the CD5 T cell count is below 200 or the patient has had an AIDS defining infection 0 Symptoms during full blown aids I Extreme weight loss I Weakness I More frequent infections Kaposi s sarcoma a rare form of skin cancer often affects AIDS patients Invasive cervical cancer Fungal pneumonia Tuberculosis OOO O HIV also causes cancer HIV is primarily passed via 0 Sexual contact 0 Blood transfusions prior to 1985 o Contaminated needles shared by IV drug abusers 0 HIV van also be transmitted from mother to baby through the placenta or breast milk AIDS can be prevented by safe sexual practices Pregnant women infected with HIV by taking AZT during pregnancy or try new drug treatments 0 Early inhibitors that prevent the virus from entering a cells 0 Integrase inhibitors that block the virus from integrating its genetic material into the host cell 0 Reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors prevent the virus from making DNA from its RNA genome Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmitted via droplets that can float in the air for several hours Incubation period is 412 weeks When bacteria reach the lungs they are consumed by macrophages other white blood cells rush to area walling off the infection site causing tubercules I If immune system fails to control the bacteria the tubercule liquefies and forms a cavity allowing for the spread of the disease 0 Treated with a combination of antibiotics 0 Most common cause of death in AIDS patients 0 Transmitted by a mosquito I are living organisms that transfer a pathogen from one host to another I Caused by protists from the genus Plasmodium Mosquito injects virus travel to the liver and reproduce o nfects more liver and red blood cells I People with sickle cell anemia are thought to be immune o Caused flu like symptoms initially I Severe malaria results in anemia kidney failure cardiovascular collapse shock death 0 People considered most susceptible pregnant women and travelers 0 Virus with H and N spikes I H spike allow the virus to bind to a receptor I N spike attacks host plasma membranes Attacks host plasma membranes 0 Bird Flu H5N1 I Can spread from bird to human but rarely human to human 0 Corona virus that arose due to consumption of infected civets which exposed to infected bats OOOO o Bacteria thrive in cooling system Middle Ease Respiratory Virus 0 Corona virus of unknown origins Penicillin resistance emerged in 19405 methicillin resistant staphyloccous aureus XDR TB extensively drug resistant TB


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