Chapter 4: Conciousness
Chapter 4: Conciousness PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Popular in INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Towson University.
Reviews for Chapter 4: Conciousness
Notes look good! A little long though, I recommend focusing more on key components and trying to rewrite certain ideas in a way that more students will understand! Just trying to help out! :) Good luck!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/02/15
Consciousness Chapter 4 Definition of Consciousness The awareness of thoughts feelings and arousal state Sleep What determines how much sleep you need 0 Age The older you are the less sleep you need Infants 1416h rs Adults 8hrs 0 Lifestyle The way work school careers affect your life REM Behavior disorder Classified by sleep walking moving etc NonParalyzed Circadian Rhythm 0 A built in physical cycle of consciousness and rest 0 Controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus which serves as an internal clock 0 Controls cells in the hypothalamus to signal the pineal gland to release melatonin What two things influence circadian rhythm 0 Changes in light 0 Melatonin During puberty our circadian rhythm shifts back allowing us to stay awake longer and sleep later into the day Stages of Sleep 5 Stages of Sleep EEG A medical machine the measures brain waves Beta Waves AWAKE AND ALERT BRAIN WAVES rapid waves with a high number of cycles U 39I Bda 39vV 39YL YI 39 l h l39 l n1 I 39 quoti H I HJ iups xquot quot u 3 Hut nlrl 1il LquotL ug0l 39 in 4th Him and mm L1 saliva Alpha Waves AWAKE AND relaxed Slower waves with less cycles at y MMmeo 391 I39 I u 339 quot quot 81 Lps I 39 39I 7 quot Vt clan1 lh cpumlg um mnlnmun Two states of sleep NONREM SLEEP REM SLEEP NONREM SLEEP Stage one Theta waves Slow and less frequent than beta and alpha waves quot l me Watts 39 I 3 v t V l qua 39 1m39 39 and h Mun ulmm 39 39 inln slrcp mul ulrczmis Light sleep Breathing and heart rate slow Sensations of floating Easily woken Duration is 17minutes Transitional stage Between stage 1 and two Hypnopompic Jerk A physical jerk that occurs when cortisol levels in the body decrease Stage 2 Slower Theta waves Sleep spindles Sleep Spindle 1 N2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Breathing heart rate and body temperature continue to decrease Duration is 20minutes Theta waves continue Delta waves begin All delta waves Large and slow Dali WM us 5 S L39px Dccply h39t t39p md Iml hran ma Relaxed Growth hormone is secreted Body maintenance and restoration occur If awakened disorientated Dreams are in black and white REM SLEEP Your body systems speed back up Your body system cycles back through stage two Breathing increase Heart rate becomes irregular ncrease blood flow to genitals Brain is awake but the body is asleep cataplexy or Paralysis during Sleep Dream in color Duration is 3040minutes REM is 20 of the time spent asleep Throughout the night the time spent in NONREM sleep decreases and the time spent in REM increases REM Rebound When people lose sleep and make up for it the next day by dreaming more throughout the night Theories on dreaming Onierology Study of dreaming it s estimated that we forget 95 of our dreams REM Atopia Sleep paralysis a state where you are awake but unable to move Dreams are an epiphenomenon Accidental process as a result of a more important process Freud quotRoyal road to the unconscious Allow us to express fears and desires without censorship Manifest content What we remember Latent content The symbolic meaning of what we remember Coping evolutionary defense or biology Continuity theory Dreaming is a way to cope with daily problems and is Issues Memory theory Consolidate information and get rid of trivial details in our memories Threat Stimulation Theory TST A biological defense mechanism that allows us to experience threatening situations to rehearse our responses ActivationSynthesis Theory Dreams are only a byproduct of the random firing of neurons during REM sleep Sleep disorders Disturbances in normal sleep patterns I DisorderInformation I Cause I Effects I Treatment Insomnia The inability to fall asleep or stay asleep Antianxiety and seda ve medications Establish a regular sleepwake cycle Avoid long naps Don t use your bed for anything but sleep Avoid sleeping pills alcohol and caffeine Exercise throughout the day Turn off computer and cell phone Turn off ALL lights Narcolepsy A disorder where the individual falls easily into REM sleep ning wakefyl activates Sleep is REM Sleep A loss of neurons in the hypothalamus that control the release of quothypocretinquot Helps to control the sleep wake cycle Modafinal Sodium oxybate Sleep Apnea A disorder where the individual stops breathing during sleep SIDS Sydden infant death syndrome Sleep apnea is a potential cause Obesity Alcohol Seda ves Feeling sluggish Feeling tired Increased irritability InabHHyto concentrate Weight loss Nasal mask CPAP or Continuous Positive Airway pressure Mouth Retainers Removal of tonsils Surgery to alterjaw position Night terrors and enuresis Runs in familiesNight Terrors Night terrors Awakening in a state of TraumaNightmares and fear during nonREM slow wave sleep Night terrors Often not remembered Lasts 520min Common among males and Nightmares Brief scary DURING REM African SLEEP AmericansEnuresis Often remembered Stress is not helped by Enuresis Inability to control urination scoldingEnuresis in sleep Child has to be at least 5 Must wet themselves 2 times a week for 3months Sleep walking or somnambulism When NonRem slow wave sleep What Getting up and preforming actions similar to being awake What should we do Wake the person or guide them back to bed Restless Leg Syndrome RLS Genetics Sleep movement disorder Low iron levels unpleasant sensation in legs and an Dopamine irresistible desire to move Periodic Limb Movement Involuntary twitches orjerks during sleep Benefits of sleep Physical Restoration Replenish lost energy and repair cellular damage Body growth Activates the growth hormone in children teens and infants Mental Keeps your mind alert Enhances your mood Enhances learning and memory Theories of why we sleep Evolved to protect us from becoming food for other larger more adapted animals during the time that we lived in caves because we were relatively small and had very little night vision Gender ethnic and cultural variations in sleep 0 Men Less sleep needed than woman Sleep apnea is more common in men 0 Women insufficient rest daily sleepiness and needing more sleep insomnia is more common 0 African Americans sleep worse than European Americans Hypnosis Mindfulness Becoming fully aware of the present not the past no judging Hypnosis A state of heightened suggestibility How Focus on an object image or voice Increase alpha waves Hypnotist makes suggestions Hypnotic susceptibility The ability to become hypnotized Measured by the hypnotic susceptibility scale Not everyone can be hypnotized People who are easily hypnotized tend to be able to focus their attention better and have vivid imagination Neo dissociation theory Hilgard Two simultaneous states Hypnotic state Behave according to the hypnotist Hidden observer Aware of all that s happening Response set theory Cognitive set to respond appropriately to suggestions Hypnosis can But cannot Hypnosis can relieve pain Cure addictions Decrease anxiety Recovera memory A memory remembered under hypnosis Age regression Reliving earlier childhood experiences Does not enhance physical performance Drugs and drug use Psychoactive drugs Influence the brain and a person s behavior American IndianAlaskan natives have the highest rate of drug use 1825 is the normal age of illicit drug use Highest rate of use in males Top used drugs 1Marijuanna 2Prescription drugs DARE drug abuse resistance education Tolerance After repeated use more of the drug is needed for the same effect Margin of safety The safe dose to a harmful does Substance dependence physically or psychologically relying on a drug Withdrawal symptoms physical or behavioral effects that occur after drug use stops How drugs work Interfere with normal nervous system functioning by mimicking neurotransmitters Exposure to stress or trauma can make a person more susceptible to drug dependence Location of use and paraphernalia can cause a craving for the drug If you expect something to happen it s more likely to happen How it s seen culturally effects the use of the drug Drugcategory Examples Effects Effects Withdrawal Treatments Opiates Morphine codeine An intense Hot cold Methadone narcotics Vicodin hydrocodone rush and relief flashes Painkillers that oxycodone opium of pain cramps Buprenorphine mimic and heroin sweats and endorphins shakes and depress some brain functions while exciting others Stimulants Caffeine In low dose s In high doses can Speed up brain Alcohol and energy caffeine helps cause insomnia functioning drinks problem irritability Decreased awareness solving and nervousness of alcohol impairment decreases increased heart enhances the alcohols reaction time rate upset effect creates a wide stomach awake drunk who is Higher risk of more likely to drink high blood more pressure and the development of fibroid cysts miscarriage and birth defects Nicotine Top preventable cause In low dose s it Throat cancer lasts two to Active of death elevates lung cancer six weeks ingredient in dopamine emphysema and Headaches cigarettes 440 000 deaths a year levels affects heart disease rritability acetylcholine In high dose s Upset 193billion in economic and glutamate vomiting stomach costs increases diarrhea Difficulty attention and sweating and sleeping 215 of men and memory dizziness Intense cravings 173 of woman smoke Use rats for research into why nicotine is so addictive Nicotine itself isn t very reactive the rats didn t want to work very hard for the nicotine however when combined with visual cues the desire for nicotine increased showing it enhances senses making it more addictive Cocaine and Crack pipe a long Creates an Decreased During crack glass tube used to instant feeling appetite pregnancy Crack cocaine smoke crack of arousal Increased heart Premature mixed with Pleasure and rate blood birth water and Crack blocks the optimism pressure Withdrawal other additives protein dopamine alertness symptoms then boiled transporter DAT in high doses until a solid which helps the paranoia mass forms reuptake of dopamine Sieeniessness into the neuron Delusions increases the free Seizures dopamine in the brain Strokes Cardiac arrest Health effects Chronic nosebleeds Damage to the nasal cartilage Respiratoryheart problems Amphetamines Methamphetamine Affects Remains present quotUppersquot of 5 of US population dopamine in the system quotspeed similar effects to cocaine over 12 has used it at least once 197 is the average age of use serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the brain longerthan cocaine Long term use Insomnia Paranoia Agitation Confusion Violent behavior Memory loss dependence Strokes Cardiovascular problems Extreme anorexia Coma Death Hallucinogens Marijuana Treats Influences Irritability Drugs that Mild hallucinogen glaucoma learning Sleeplessness excite and 41 of people have Chronic pain Decreased inhibit the used it Nausea from Short term appetite nervous The active ingredient chemo memory system is THC or Muscle spasms Anxiety simultaneously tetrahydrocannabinol Multiple Motor Influences Binds to the sclerosis coordination Cravings neurotransmitter Effects Synesthesia anandamide gutamate Emotions miXture 0f effecting pain senses and Spice or K2 perception Appe fite Stimu Similar effects to environmental example marijuana as well as responses and Decreases seeing sounds Extreme paranoia Heart palpitations Racing thoughts Seizures Phencyclidine PCP or angel dust Developed originally as an anesthetic memory Low doses cause increased blood pressure pulse rate and breathing Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD or acid 94 of people over 12 have used it Effects begin 3090 minutes after ingestion and last 6 to 12 hours Intense emotions Classified as tripping Emotions may shift quickly from fear to happiness Expe ence several emotions at once Highly intensified sensory stimuli Stimulates serotonin receptors in uendng perception emotion and sleep reaction time Increases risk of injury when driving a car or operating machinery Hallucinations Delusions Paranoia Distortions in timebody image Hallucinations Delirium Disorientation Distress Mood swings Confusion High doses decrease blood pressure pulse and breathing Nausea Vomiting Blurred vision Drooling Loss of balance Dizziness Hallucinations Confusion Paranoia Garbled speech Severe disorientation Suicidal thoughts or actions Seizures Coma Death Increased blood pressure and heart rate Dizziness Decreased appetite Nausea Emotional and sensory hallucinations Distortions in time and body imaged Long term use causes persistent psychosis long lasting psychotic state after a trip hasended Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder HPPD reexperiencing the sensations of the trip hours weeks or years after use MDMA Ecstasy Molly Street versions Molly purer MDMA in powder form Was originally created Self confidence Increased love and warmth to Insomnia Teeth clenching Nausea also contain as an antibleeding others Increased heart amphetamine drug Emotional rate blood ketamine Also known as the openness pressure caffeine and quotclub drug Lack of Fatigue ephedrine 57 of people over inhibition Blurred vision 12 have used MDMA Begins after Long term use one half hour 2 years may and lasts three cause permanent to six hours alteration of serotonin Effective in receptors treating PTSD May cause and effects last naHUCinatienS 1774 months Depressants alcohol barbiturates In low dose s In high doses Drugs that benzodiazepines they decrease they cause inhibit or slow anxiety blackouts comas Hot coId down normal Alcohol or death ashes neural Binge drinking Alcohol Alcohol cramps functioning excessive alcohol use Chinese and sweats and 0Ver time that brings a Japanese Affects GABA and shakes person s blond alcono39 individuals depresses the concentration BAC to experience cerebral cortex 08 or more Males 5 drinks in two hours Females 4 drinks in two hours Alcoholism is genetically linked facial flushing Treat insomnia and anxiety Inhibits thoughts and behaviors Slurred speech Impaired judgement BarbituratesSedatives Ex Valium and Xanax and roofies Memory blackouts After a night of drinking being unable to remember the events that occurred Korsakoff s syndrome Memory disorder caused by vitamin B deficiency from alcohol its irreversible Fetal alcohol syndrome Low birth weight Limb head and facial deformities Brain abnormalities Learning memory difficulty solving problems attention issues 31 of all traffic deaths in the United States are alcohol related DUI s are most common in 16 25year old males 50 of rapists report drinking alcohol before committing crimes Closely related to domestic violence Living with alcoholics typically has increased conflict Common for physical sexual and emotional abusein alcoholic households Coma Death Unconsciousness by suppressing areas that control hear rate and breathing BAC Blood Alcohol Content 0203 euphoria decreased shyness lightheadedness 0406 wellbeing relaxation decreased inhibition decreased memory and alertness 0709Legal Limit speech impairment impairment of balance vision reaction time hearing judgement selfcontrol memory and reasoning 10125 significant impairment of motor coordination loss of judgement decreased thinking 1315 Lack of physical control blurred vision loss of balance 1620 anxiety restlessness sadness nausea vomiting dazed and confused feeling blackouts 25 Increased risk of injury 30 Stupor little comprehension loss of consciousness 35 Possible coma 40 Coma and death
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'