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AIP Week 5

by: Nangesian Lekilit Waters

AIP Week 5 PSC 2482

Nangesian Lekilit Waters
African International Politics
Throup, D

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One day of Notes, no notes on the book discussion.
African International Politics
Throup, D
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nangesian Lekilit Waters on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2482 at George Washington University taught by Throup, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see African International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/02/15
WEEK 5 0 China and Soviet Union China tried to minimize Soviet presence in Africa but few african countries were willing to line up with china Tanzania was one country that was very much behind China this happened in the 19605 0 US AFRICA POLICY was always constrained by US close alliance with European colonial powers Bisa Williams assistant secretary for Africa and was 6th term governor of Michigan He was a big figure on the american left Chester Bowles Department Secretary of State made fortune in NY advertising agency most prominent left wing candidate name mentioned for position of secretary of state he didn39t get the job as S of state but got the 2 position He and Adelai Stevenson had positions but they didn39t have much authority US policy in Africa was mostly determined by the embassies the african american population in the US showed very little interest in african matters american gov and business were reluctant in being in support of africa But US remained concerned in were DRC Liberia Guinea Nigeria and Ethiopia Lisbon and Pritoria were eventually prioritized because they found it difficult to rely on african allies no African country wanted to side with US in intervening with the US in the Congo issue Kennedy died and in many ways became a crucial moment 0 his interest aroused american interest in africa 0 Kennedy administration maintained active involvement in africa with him dead Johnson want particularly interested in africa Vietnam and SE Asia became the main focus there was a retreat from africa for nearly a decade 0 doesnt involve itself again until Portuguese and Ethiopian revolution that was basically the same with Soviet 0 when ltrustov was overthrown and new leadership came in their interest died o Africa no longer had attention as it had with ltrustov o ltrustov saw africa as a place of opportunity where they could make allies o africa was in a period of marginalization o the main powers werent going to mess around with africa o africa was much less in the forefront 0 that changes with the Portuguese rev in 1974 and coming to powers of radical groups in africaex angola and the coup in ethiopia that reignites american interest in africa during this 10 yr period africa isn39t key to global leverage both global powers were disillusionedthey looked at africa and saw themselves they realize that it wasn39t true african leaders were going at playing them in the 60s Soviet was under econ pressure and it prioritized military competition with the US and was also preoccupied with issues in western europe the Chinese 19661968 bad times for china 0 afew african countries broke diplomatic relations with the Chinese 1965 47 countries voted to recognize Beijing and 47 voted in favor of taipei pro china eventually fell while pro Taipei rose 196460 trips by Chinese delegates 94 africans to china 1968 went down to 12 12 african delegates to china SU found there was nothing to be gained to support campaigns against white power in Africa tho they didn39t entirely abandon it theyjust downplayed their support 1965 Nkurumah asks for cocoa purchases from soviet and to bail them out of debts but the SU couldn39t offer too much help Soviet gov was critical over the failures of soviet work in africa so they adopted the strategy of diplomatic engagement 0 gradually built relationships with conservative african regimes like Cote d Vouire Burkina Faso Niger 0 1966 recognize Sese Seko as president of DRC o There was very little soviet support at this time tho 0 main focus was with guinea whereby they wanted to develop bauxite 0 there was an exception Nigeria and the Civil War there Nigeria divided in two HausaFulani in the North NE area called Kanuri in Borno were very conservative muslims and that39s the current main center of Boko Haram Southern Nigeria Yoruba in the west and lgbo in the East in 20th c the lgbo area became quite christian and there were many american missions yoruba had a series of city states with common language culture but not common states it39s divided into feuding city states ruled by chiefs yoruba land is mostly 12 christian and 12 muslim all the founding fathers who had been captured on slave ships and brought back to cities converted to christianity had adopted the culture of where they came from the Yoruba area was more developed the economies of the south were pretty boyant 1st political party NCNC 0 main leader was Nnandi Ajikiwe o he ran english newspaper thru out africa and that39s how he made his money in 19305 and 1940s his political party pushed for Nigerian independence 19505 political party split and the Action Group emerged o it was led by Obafemi Awolowo o the East supported NCNC while the west supported AG 0 they both pushed for independence why was nigeria lagging behind when it came to independence 0 the answer is the North the North didn39t want independence 0 North recognized that an indeoendent Nigeria would be taken over by the southmostly christian 0 christian missionaries were not allowed to the north but they made it to the Middle Belt 0 there were no colonial schools in the north only madrasas o weren39t many educated northerners either key political figures in the north Sir Ahmado Bello amp Sardona of Sokoto Sokoto becomes political organizer of the north 0 he sets up NPCNorthern people39s congress 0 his front man was Sir Abubaka TafawaBlew 0 only northerner educated in the west and spoke English in 1953 Brits decide to split nigeria created 3 regions and introduced self gov in those 3 regions that was an attempt to bring N Nigeria up to speed that created 3 political parties 3 provinces Azikiwe went into a coalition with Northern people39s congress and Nigeria goes to independence in 1960 military coup occured and all the PMs all the regions were assassinated it looks as if it had succeeded but it became unstuck it was operated by middle ranking officers emerging from the chaos senior officers took control led by an lgbo guy new military gov made a mistake they decide on a united states massive riots in the north occur they saw their last element of autonomy being stripped away in june 1966 lots of riots and ethnic violence against lgbos living in N Nigeria in July 1966 another coup this time it was from the north led by northern officers and it succeeds in N and W but not E North looks for a new leader because the old one was killed they promoted Cornell Yakubu who was not a christian they tried to reach out to people of northern nigeria beginning in 1950s nigeria becomes major producer of petroleum in 19605 money starts to flow in but the problem is that it is all in the Eastern region the area where the counter coup from the North didn39t succeed 196667 negotiations of Eastern gov and the rest over the financial configurations of Nigerian state how autonomous would the eastern region be who would get what in terms of oil revenue etc only 12 of the pop is lgbo and its the nonigbo people who have the oil on theuland because of these complexities civil war begun Nigerian gov since independence had been the most conservative very pro western gov didn39t really have close relations with SU but they expected assistant from the US because it identified with the US more however the US didn39t really allie itself with one side it didn39t completely disassociate itself with the igbo 1968 american catholic church pressed gov to support the lgbo nixon took this and became pro igbo in the conflict and when he became president he used department of defense to bypass state department to get an idea of what was happening


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