Psyc 4220 Weeks 7 Notes
Psyc 4220 Weeks 7 Notes PSYC 4220
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
PSYC 4220 WEEK 7 NOTES September 28 2015 Comprehension precedes production infants can understand more than they can say Language development Holophrase period Begins around 1014 months Use hoophrases single words that convey many things Constrained by sounds they can produce Sounds that begin with consonants and end with vowels are easiest Due to immature vocal tract lack of experience with speaking Language acquisition slow at rst one word at a time 10 words 34 months after rst word Language development naminglanguage explosion 1624 months vocabulary spurt when vocab expands rapidly by 2 years can produce 300400 words common errors underextension use word too narrowly ex Only pet Fi is quotdogquot overextension use word too broadly ex All 4 legged animals are quotdogquot language development telegraphic period 1824 months begin using telegraphic speech combine 23 words into simple sentences only use most important words leave out words that aren t critical to meaning use some grammatical rules continue to use intonation and gestures Theories of language development Pure nurture the behavioral learning approach Language is learned through reinforcement punishment modeling and imitation Skinner learning occurs through operant conditioning language abilities slowly shared Bandura learn language through observation and imitation Suppo Children learn language spoken to and around them and pick up accents Children learn names of things quicker if rewarded by getting object they named Children whose parents speak to them more often encourage them to talk are more advanced in language development Problems with theory Can t explain why kids learn rules of grammar Parents do not consistently reinforce kids for speaking correctly Children create novel communication Ex Kids say quotgo edquot rather than went Pure nature The Nativist Perspective Humans are biologically programmed to learn language Chomsky language activation device LAD proposed neural system that was hypothesized to allow understandingproduction of language Allows children to infer rules of speech from just hearing speech and then use rules to produce speech Contains universal grammar basic rules that characterize all human language Supporting evidence Similar stages of development across all cultures Left hemisphere of brain is specialized for language and activated by speech right after birth Sensitive period hypothesis sensitive period for language development before puberty Brains before puberty specially prepared to learnlanguage Problems Not an explanation more of a description Mere exposure not enough Is it uniquely human Both nature and nurture The Interactionist Perspective Infants biologically predisposed to learn language because of slowly maturing brain and drive to communicate Language rules learned out of necessity to organize growing vocabulary Mere exposure to language is not enough Language is developed in context of interactions without social interactions language will not be learned Direct reinforcementpunishment may not be used but language is shapedtaught other ways September 30 2015 Chapter 7 Social amp Personality Development in Infancy Temperament A person s characteristic mode of responding to events quotbuilding blocks of personalityquot includes behaviors and emotions consists of dimensions such as positive affect and sociability fearful distress irritable distress easily frustrated ac v ylevel how active is baby Attention span Rhythmicity Do they sleep on a regular schedule How rhythmic are bodily functions 3 categories of temperament easy temperament 40 high positive affect adaptable to new experiences easy to soothe low distress difficult temperament 10 low positive affect high irritable distress very active irregular eating and sleeping habits very affected by change hard to soothe slow to warm up temperament 15 high levels of fearful distress afraidshy don t like new things low activity level slow to adapt to new experiences but can eventually if given time remaining infants share qualities of 2 or more qualities stability of temperament longitudinal research indicates that activity level irritability sociability and fearfulness stay relatively stable over lifespan shyness is persistent more extreme traits more likely to persist more stable after age 3 causes of temperament heredity identical twins are more similar in temperament than fraternal twins environmental in uences goodness of t extent to which child s temperament is compatible with expectations and demands of environment Erikson s Psychosocial Stages Erik Erikson 19021994 Stage theory used to explain how we develop our understanding of ourselves and other people Divide development into 8 stages Development develops throughout lifespan Each stage has a crisis that person must deal with Need to nd the right balance between 3 extremes If not successful less healthy development and harder to deal with next stage But these crises are never completely solved and can come up again later in life Trust vs Mistrust birth18 months Interactions with caregivers teach either a sense of trust or mistrust in other people the world themselves Consistent responsive caregiving is key Caregiver s attachment to infant Attachment emotional tie that bonds us to special people with whom we seek proximity and security Attachment relationships are reciprocal form from interaction between caregiver and child Some caregiver attachments may form before birth lnfant characteristics may help attachment form Reciprocal socialization process in which infants behaviors invite further responses from caregivers which in turn bring about further responses from infants Responsive parents teach infants they have some control allow time to practice emotional regulation Caregiver s attachment to infant can be affected by infant s temperament October 2 2015 Development of infant s attachment to caregiver 4 phases asocial phase birth6 weeks responsive to anything social or not phase of indiscriminate attachment 6 weeks to 67 months at beginning prefer social stimuli but aren t picky by 36 months some preferences for familiar people still happy to interact with strangers speci c attachment phase 67 months to 9 months form rst attachment usuay mom quotfall in love for rst timequot attachment facilitates exploration caregiver becomes quotsecure basequot phase of multiple attachments 918 months within weeks form other attachments choose different attachment gures for different needs Attachment related fears Stranger anxiety fear when approached by unfamiliar individual Begins with rst attachment peaks between 810 months gradually decreases over second year Strangers less scary if Attachment gure close by responds positively Situation is familiar Stranger is sensitive to child s cue isn t quotweird lookingquot Separation anxiety fear when separated from attachment gure Starts at 68 months peaks at 1418 months fades throughout preschool Grade school kids and teens may have some depressionanxiety when separated for long periods Quality of attachment assessment quotstrange situationquot method used to assess strength and quality of attachment involves child parents and stranger interactions in different combinations Ainsworth Does child use caregiver as secure base How does child react to stranger How does child handle brief separation from parent How easily child soothed when parent returns
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