Balancing Equations and Solubility
Balancing Equations and Solubility CHEM 103 - 002
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CHEM 103 - 002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karlee Nelsen on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 103 - 002 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Sanchita Hati in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Hydrate is a substance composed on in inorganic salt and physically bound in water XMX 39nHzo K Water salt 11 the ratio of mole of water to 1 mol of salt 11 Naming the Hydrates lSalt Name 2prefiX3hydrate EX Nags O4nH20 lSodium Sulfate 2Penta3hydrate Calculating n by heating the hydrate to form an anhydrate then finding mass difference M11504 XH20 47709 M11504 2 2988g 477g 2988g 1782g mass H20 2 1782 1 mol M11504 2988g X W 198 mol M11504 1787 x 1mm 0992 lH 0 399 1802g 39 m0 2 0992 mol M11504 0198 mol H20 5X MHSO4395H20 Law of Conservation of Mass 9 means that all reactions must be balances which can only be done by changing the stoichiometric coefficients large in front of atomic symbol In chemical equilibrium both sides of the reaction are being converted to the other side eX Reactants constantly becoming products and products constantly becoming reactants Equilibrium is N2 3H2 69 2NH3 Electrolytes 0 Electrolytes conduct current when placed in water the compound dissolves and there are ions in the water that make it possible to conduct electricity NaClaq 9 NaaqCl39aq 0 Nonelectrolyte nonconductor some ions are in the water but so in the compound which doesn t allow for as strong of conductivity CH3COOHaq 69 CHgOO39aq Haq There is still compound that hasn t dissociated and is evident in the low conductivity Also the compound is constantly dissociating and being attracted to water molecules while rebinding to create more of the compound at the same time which results in an equilibrium Ionic Compound Solutes in aqueous solution N Molecular Compound Acid amp weak Base Strong Acid Weak Acid amp Weak Base Strong Electrolyte ions Weak Electrolyte molecules ampions Most molecular compounds V Nonelectrolyte molecules Molecular form equation has all substances written as molecules even if some are ions that are dissolved in water CUNO32aq 2NaOHaq 9 CUOH2 s 2NaN03 aq Total ionic Equation has soluble substances represented by their ions in the solution C112aq 2NO3aq 2Naaq 20Haq 92Na aq 2NO3 aq CUOH2 5 Net Ionic Equation only shows ions that underwent a change while all spectator ions are removed Cu2aq 20H39aq 9CuOH2 5 ions not in this equation were spectators Balancing equations Try the three equations below If they are all easy for you then you are good at balancing equations if not keep reading NaBr C12 9 BI 2 803 82C12 C12 9 FCSz 02 9 F6203 802 When balancing reactions it is important to remember that all compounds have a coefficient in front of them as shown in the example below 2NaBr 1C12 9 2NaCl 1 Br2 When the coefficient is l we tend not to wright it because we can be lazy so we are though it may be good to write while learning How to start balancing the equation 1 Always start with compounds that have multiple elements ex NaBr never compounds that are single element ex C12 2 Generally start with the first balancing with the first element in the equation generally a cation in this case Na 3 Balance the cations on each side then start with the anions Generally only double the coefficient that worked for the cation both sides 4 Generally leave 0 and H until the end because they are usually most plentiful and often end up balancing when other compounds are balanced first some people prefer to balance 0 and H first that is ok also 5 Finally finish balancing with the single element compounds C12 6 Double check your balanced equation always count the elements on each side to be sure they match For particularly dif cult equations to balance This does not always work for me and can sometimes be more time consuming 1 Write out the net ionic equation without regard to aq s or 1 Remember to write the charge Balance the ions on both sides by adding coefficients only Combine the elements back into their compounds and double or triple the coefficients as needed when combining if ions have the same coefficient as their compound partner do NOT adjust them when combining Recheck both sides of the equation to be sure it balances Example below with the difficult equation Write the equation with the correct compounds F S2 O2 9 F6203 02 Write it in total ionic form for ionic bonds not for covalent bonds this equation isn t ionic Fe 82 02 9 Fe2 03 8 02 Start balancing ions remember to account for subscripts odd number greater than 1 should generally be doubled into an even number 2Fe 82 402 9 Fez 203 28 02 Combine compounds back together compounds in red doubled the compound s pair that wasn t doubled when separated therefore the pair on the opposite side must be rebalanced ignore the doubling effects of O and H mostly and any element which would cause its pair to double twice 2FCS2 402 9 2F 2O3 2802 4F S2 O2 9 2F 2O3 4802 Now check 0 and H or any element that is present in multiple compounds see that Fe is completely balanced so try to leave it alone but notice that O in unbalanced so change the 02 and 4S02 compounds 4FCS2 1102 9 2F 2O3 8302 Balancing can be frustrating when struggling try taking a step back deep breath then attack from a new angle different approach to the problem Here are answers from the earlier equations in order of easy medium and hard 2NaBr C12 9 2NaCl Br2 1SO3 1S2Cl2 2Cl2 9 4FCS2 11O2 9 2FC2O3 8SO2 Solute Solvent 9 Solution NaCl Water 9 NaCl solution 1 M molar solution 1 mol of solute 1 L Water When as acid is placed in water it produces H ions When a base is placed in water it produces OHquot ions In other words acids have hydrogen ions and bases have hydroxide ions From that we can determine that HCl is an acid and NaOH is a base Exchange Reaction Precipitation Reaction AX BY 9 AY BX Anions will simply trade places trade cations Is a compound soluble in water Molecular compounds must be polar in order to be soluble in water Ionic compounds are governed by Solubility Rules no need to memorize 1 Attraction force between ions 2 Force of attraction for water molecues If the attraction force is greater toward water then the compound is soluble 3 If one of the elements in the compound is soluble on the solubility table then the compound is soluble Almost all salts of Almost all salts of Salts containing Salts of Na K NH4Jr Cl Br I F sulfate SO42 Salts of nitrate N03 chlorate 003 perchlorate Cl04 acetate CH3C02 O Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Most salts of Most metal hydroxides carbonate C032 and oxides phosphate PO43 oxalate C2042 chromate 0042 sul de 2 DCWLW quotmm
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