Week 5 (STM, Working Memory, LTM)
Week 5 (STM, Working Memory, LTM) PSYC 2014
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
September 2830 2015 Cognitive Psychology Review from 923 question What is automatic in the cognitive processing that produces the Stroop effect A the color naming response B the word reading response C the color naming and word reading responses D the conflict between the word reading and color naming response WHY Reading is an automatic process Therefore it is not a problem to complete the task when the color of the word matches what the word says BUT when the word and color do not match the automatic response of reading the word interferes with naming the color Why is D not correct The conflict is between two cognitive processes reading and naming the color the conflict is not an automatic process You do not name the color of words automatically but you do read words automatically because it has been drilled into you throughout life Short Term and Working Memory Continued Differences in Sensory memory and shorttermworking memory Sensory memory only holds onto things for a fraction of a second shortterm working memory holds onto it longer than this It has been codedunderstood when information goes into the shorttermworking memory Most of the sensory input you get doesn t get coded into your shorttermworking memory September 2830 2015 Shortterm Memory Shows us a series of letters quickly how many can you remember KFCBLTAMMABC Just really need to remember 4 because of this KFC kentucky fried chicken BLT bacon lettuce tomato AMM add mayo and mustard ABC already been chewed You already know these acronyms If you aren t in the food business you probably don t know whatAMM means and therefore you may need to remember it as individual letters Chunk unit of storage in short term memory Meaningful unit of interpretation for the person doing the storing A person can put something into a chunk based on what makes sense to them These vary it can be just a letter or a word or an acronym etc What then is the capacity of sensory memory We are not understanding things that go into our sensory memory and therefore you cannot talk about chunking in terms of the sensory memory Duration of STM Rehearsal processing information to keep it active in STM or working memory Once you get something coded you can keep it in your STM Ex repeating the chunk AMM over and over again you could keep it in your STM forever Synecdoche a figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa as in Cleveland won by six runs meaning Cleveland s baseball team 2 types of rehearsal September 2830 2015 Maintenance rehearsal repeat something over to yourself to keep it in your mind Elaborative Rehearsal thinking about relationships among items to be learned In the case of the meaning of the word synedcoche you may think of a synonym that you already know that also means synedoche In the absence of rehearsal adult humans can retain information in STM for about 18 seconds How do we know this Presents us with letters that we need to keep alive in our memory FGRP and after they disappear count back from 333 by 33 Brown and Peterson Task S sees a group of items ex FGRP then counts backwards Helen139 an 39Iquotrlll i 13quot After various amounts of time 8 attempts to recall items j Results Recall very poorly after about 20 seconds Why 333 by 33 Doing so is not that easy and therefore you cannot be rehearsing the group of items you were shown If you were asked to only remember one letter and count backwards most people can do that without much effort This is because it is less information to remember Less Interference Proactive Interference negative effect on memory for X due to previously learning Y Retroactive Interference negative effect on memory of Y due to subsequently learning X Both of these interference types are going on simultaneously September 2830 2015 Better if X and Y are not similar really at all Working Memory Conceptually it is essentially the same thing as STM Phonological loop temporarily maintains verbal information Used to remember verbal information Phonological Store inner ear holds information in phonological loop Articulatory Control Process inner voice maintains information in phonological loop When you rehearse things in your memory you are saying these things over and over again in your head with your inner voice Do you have multiple inner voices You always know what your name is but is there always a voice telling you what your name is Your conscience telling you morally yes or no This inner voice though is louder than all the others There is actually evidence that these things are separate areas of your brain Perception we are such stuff as dreams are made on And our little life is rounded with a sleep Listen to an actor saying this beautifully and try to remember it Memory wi aer sA stAf aes drims aer med an aend When you are keeping it in your memory it is now in your own voice You can t keep alive the original speech of the original actor Loose some of the sensory richness There are different areas in the brain that are involved in your inner voice and your innerear Why does it make sense that these areas are on the side The inner ear is part of the back of the brain because that is where our sensory information is processed September 2830 2015 The inner voice is part of the motor cortex because it is really like speaking just internally How do we know He shows us two sets of letters separately and we are supposed to remember as many as possible The first row of letters were harder to articulate because they all rhymed Phonological Confusions items more difficult to retain in working memory if phonologically similar He shows us a bunch of words all about 45 letters and then another group of words all 3 letters had to recall them Word Length Effect short words are easier than long words to remember with working memory VIDEO of a woman who speaks insanely fast She will be better at keeping things in her working memory than someone who speaks slower Articulation Speed Effect the number of items that a person can remember in working memory increases with the person s speed of articulation Visuospatial Sketch Pad temporarily maintains visuospatial information VIDEO of a monkey clicking numbers 19 in order very quickly Visual Cache stores information about visual form and color In phonological loop this would remind you of the inner ear Inner Scribe rehearses information in visual cache involved in planning and execution of body and limb movements In phonological loop this would remind you of the inner voice Again these two things are found in different areas of the brain on the right side You have to have both September 2830 2015 Cognitive Psychology Review from 928 Question The number of words retained in the phonological loop with increases in the average length of the words and with increases in the subject s rate rehearsal A decreases stays the same B decreases increases C increases decreases D increases stays the same VVhy Concepts you just need to know You can retain more things in your memory the shorter the word is The faster you can speakrehearse them the more you can remember them Short Term and Working Memory Continued Working Memory Visuospatial Sketch Pad temporarily maintains Visuospatial information VIDEO of a monkey clicking numbers 19 in order very quickly Visual Cache stores information about visual form and color In phonological loop this would remind you of the inner ear Inner Scribe rehearses information in visual cache involved in planning and execution of body and limb movements In phonological loop this would remind you of the inner voice Again these two things are found in different areas of the brain on the right side You have to have both September 2830 2015 Episodic Buffer organizes events stored in phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad into coherent sequences Sometimes you need to use both and so this organizes the events Central Executive control system that guides attention allocates resources coordinates components of working memory Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task Call on different working memory capacities moment to moment essentially just a complicated cognitive function Showed us a series of numbers one on each slide and you needed to add the first number to the second number then the second number to the third number The slides went 6 3 4 7 5 9 8 and the results were 0 6393474711751259149817 It was very challenging This part of the brain is thought to be very involved in doing these things VIDEO The Lobotomist A lobotomy was done by electrically shocking a patient rendering them unconscious for a few minutes They would then insert and ice pick into the eye and hammer it through to the brain and essentially wiggle it around on the brain to sever connections Was used to treat mental illness schizophrenia manic depression bipolar disorder etc had other bad side effects It was thought that there were no longterm effects because everyone could still function it was just sort of calming the patient down So the question was that what is going on in the prefrontal cortex that allows the person to appear fully functional Long Term Memory Has half the class out their head down and the other half look at words on the screen and then continues with lecture September 2830 2015 Divisions of LongTerm Memory Even more subdivisions of long term memory than STM sensory and working memory Thought that the divisions are there because they evolved as the human needed it Memory Systems Hypothesis several kinds of long term memory that can be distinguished with different systems being supported by different brain structures Explicit Memory memories that are consciously stored and retrieved Big part of longterm memory Memory of something that you purposely bring in and out of your consciousness Ex what you did this weekend your last vacation the list of US presidents etc Semantic Memory memory for conceptual knowledge about the world One form of explicit memory Episodic Memory memory for events of one s life Another form of explicit memory The fact that you now know what episodic memory is you ll have that as part of your semantic memory is there an episodic record involving episodic memory Remembering the event of learning it Looking at the knowledge you gained by learning what memory is Semantic Looking at the event of learning what memory is Episodic Prospective Memory remembering to do things in the future Implicit Memory past experience influences present behavior in the absence of conscious awareness Whywhen would this happen There is a couple different ways it can be unconscious There is memory of it happening ex learning how to golf but you are not thinking about this memory when doing something else ex playing golf later in life September 2830 2015 Why would it be good Thinking specifically about how to do something while trying to do it makes it harder to do the action Ex dancing if you are thinking about all the things you learned to do and not to do you are more likely to mess up Essentially consciousness has a limit and trying to remember all the varies things you need to do while doing something is near impossible Frees up space for new information Ex if you are golfing but are so busy focusing on how exactly to do something you wont get the social aspect or the scenery or whatever else Procedural memory memory for motor or cognitive behaviors Very general category Skill Learning remembering a sequence of motorcognitive things Simple Conditioning learning of new reflexive responses through mechanisms of classical conditions Ex Pavlov s dogs You have an automatic response when born the animal is rewiring itself Emotional Conditioning learning of emotional responses through mechanism of classical conditioning Ex a boy and girl are in a boat playing music they are really happy cause they are together and the scenery is beautiful and they like boats Fast forward 30 years and the boy hears the song playing on the radio and he is happy UCS the boat the sun etc UCR happy CS music CR happy years after when he hears the song PerceptualRepresentational Memory memory for perceptual events Ex why in every single Burger King is there the sign the same September 2830 2015 The recognition process will be faster if all the signs look the same and maybe you ll go there He has us complete the word with the first word that comes to mind Pa MOST people said pat do MOST people said dog IOL MOST people said pin Repetition Priming facilitation in the processing of information consequent to recent exposure to information When asked to fill in the last letter of the word the side of the classroom that he had look at the words at the beginning of class filled in more of the words that were primed before This is going on with Burger King Not conscious that the previous experience has anything to do with what they are doing now Subliminal Repetition Priming repetition priming in which words are presented so briefly during exposure phase occurs that S is unaware of their presentation You can actually make someone unconscious of the experience at the time that they had the experience VIDEO of Top Chef where there was a McDonalds ad that flashes in one frame Characteristics of longterm memory Capacity of LTM The capacity is essentially unlimited You don t need to worry that if you learn all the stuff on our review sheet that you will forget your chemistry concepts 10 September 2830 2015 Duration and forgetting in LTM Information can be retained in LTM over course of your lifetime VIDEO of woman who remembers everything This is a person who has Hyperthymesia don t need to know she essentially just has an amazing memory for events in her life 11
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