Week 6 Notes
Popular in Psych Childhood and Adolescence
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Shields on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 280 at Kansas State University taught by Mark Barnett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Psych Childhood and Adolescence in Psychlogy at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Phenomes a few in the first few months Morphemes about 8 months Holophrasic Speech single words about 12 months Note that receptive language exceeds expressive language gt know for test Telegraphic Speech about 18 months Single 23 word quotsentencesquot Tends to follow basic rules of grammar Pivot words amp Xwords Bellugi amp Brown Baby cry See doggy No doggy Pivot words stays in the same place Xword changing word Baby sleep See mommy No mommy Baby fall See baby No baby T Reflective quotobject permanancequot Brief discussion of continuing rapid language development in 2 3 and 4 year olds Language rapidly grows gt 2 years pronouns naming objects about 200 word vocabulary prepositions 3 years 1000 word vocabulary 4 years about 1500 word vocabulary quotLanguage spongequot By 4 4 12 many children have mastered basic grammar amp sentence structure So what is the basis of children39s tremendous capacity to learn amp use language effectively NURTU RE role of environment Role of imitation amp reinforcement in shaping children39s language Limitations cannot possibly account for rapid gt 1 children say things they have not heard before 2 parents are not that systematic to what toddler says reinforcing NATURE role of biology amp brain development Chomsky39s Language Acquisition Device LAD Indirect support for the role of nature Limited errors that often follow rules gt may have correct verb but might overapply rule Evidence from crosscultural research Research on the brain gt children recover from brain damage faster Gender gt female tends not to be affected as much as men Cognitive Development Piagetion Perspective some basic assumptions Qualitativer maturationally linked stages set order different rate No skipping and no stage regression Adaption Schemata early development helps mental representations Assimilation to respond to new stimuli as you have in the past All organism adapt to their environment gt similar Accomodation modify in a way that39s appropriate to fit what is necessary gt changing disequilibrium does not understand change how you think Organization Physical and Psychological Stage Model Sequences that all children go through in order to understand the world around them Child39s actions with the world is what helps them understand amp learn Divides intelligence into 2 broad categories Preconceptual Intelligence Sensorimotor 018 mos gt not using mental representations using other senses Conceptual Intelligence Preoperational 18 mos 7 yrs gt using words to solve problems amp understand their world Concrete Operations 7 11 yrs gt able to perform logical operation think at a higher level Formal Operations 11 yrs gt think about strategies able to think ahead and in an abstract way Sensorimotor Stage 0 18 mos O 1 mos REFLEXES 1 4 mos PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS Focused on the self 4 6 mos SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS Increased motor movement repeat action for pleasure intent of behavior 6 10 mos COORDINATION OF SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS Concepts of objects gt things that are separate of the self Object permanence gt things exist even when they do not see them Action gt Schema gt Language infant plays with doll gt infant develops schema of doll gt toddler says quotdollquot 10 18 mos TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS Explore object potential trial amp error Preoperational Stage 918 mos 7 yrs gt pretend imagination Piaget emphasizes deficiencies in toddler39s Thinking lacks in generality gt doesn39t understand categories Thinking is egocentric Perceptual Physical Egocentrism Child 1 0 El A Child 2 o 0 Also the quotThree Mountains Taskquot Psychological Egocentrism Toddler has difficulty taking other person39s affective or cognitive perception Relates to theory of mind Child is unable to perform a logical operation and conserve Differences centers can39t reverse think thinking is static Child fails to understand quotClass Inclusionquot Can39t deal with part and whole simultaneously Child does not understand the Concept of Relations Fails to Conserve Number Role of Social interactionconflict in cognitive development amp reducing egocentrism Important for Moral Development as well An quotinteraction studyquot with 6 amp 7 year olds quotConserversquot can assist quotnonconserversquot Relation to cooperative learning and Vygotsky39s quotZone of Proximal Developmentquot
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