Week 7 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Language Development Prelinguistic Stage Comprehension precedes production infants can understand more than they can say Language Development Holophrase Period Begins around 1014 months Use holophrases single words that convey many things 0 Ex using the holophrase dada for multiple things 0 Constrained by sounds they can produce 0 Mean different things by different intonation I Sounds that begin with consonants and end with vowels are the easiest to say I Due to immature vocal tract lack of experience with speaking Language acquisitions are low at first one word at a time o 10 words 34 months after the 1St word Language Development NamingLanguage Explosion there is some quotclickquot in the brain and child can suddenly say a lot of words This happens during the Telegraphic Period 1624 months vocabulary spurt when vocabulary expands rapidly built from things they use a lot one word at a time o By 2 years old can produce 3004OO words 0 Common errors I Underextension use word too narrowly Ex only child s own pet Fifi is quotdogquot I Overextension use word too broadly Ex all four legged animals are quotdogquot Language Development Telegraphic Period 1824 months Begin using telegraphic speech combining 23 words into simple sentences Only use words that are important to convey meaning Contain only important words leave out word that are not critical to meaning Not completely grammatically correct Use SOME grammatical rules Continue to use intonation and gestures 0 Ex dad goed work Theories of Language Development Pure Nurture The Behavioral Learning Approach 0 Language is learned through reinforcements punishments modeling and imitation o Skinner learning occurs through operant conditioning language abilities slowly shaped o Bandura learn language through observation imitation 0 Support I Children learn language spoken to and around them and pick up accents I Children learn names of things quicker if rewarded by getting object they name I Children whose parents speak to them more often encourage them to talk are more advanced in language development 0 Problems with theory I Can t explain why kids learn rules of grammar Parents do not consistently reinforce kids for speaking correctly I Children create novel communication Pure Nature The Nativist Perspective 0 Humans biologically programmed to learn language 0 Chomsky language acquisition device LAD proposed neural system that was hypothesized to allow understimulating production of language I Allow children to infer rules of speech from just hearing speech and then use rules to produce novel speech I Contains universal grammar basic rules that characterize all human language 0 Supporting evidence I Similar stages of development across all cultures I Left hemisphere of brain is specialized for language and activated by speech right after birth I Sensitive period hypothesis sensitive period for language development before puberty Brains before puberty specially prepared to learn language 0 Problems I Not an explanation more of a description I Mere exposure not enough I Is it uniquely human Both nature and nurture The Interactionist Perspective 0 Infants biologically predisposed to learn language because of slowly maturing brain and drive to communicate 0 Language rules learned out of necessity to organize growing vocabulary o Mere exposure is not enough I Language developed in context of social interactions without social interactions language will not be learned I Direct reinforcementpunishment may not be needed but language is shaped taught in other ways Chapter 7 Social and Personality Development in Infancy Temperament A person s characteristic mode of responding to events 0 Come equipped to respond in different ways 0 Includes behaviors and emotions 0 Building blocks of personalityquot Consists of 6 dimensions 0 Positive A ectSociability I How positive is the baby generally and how social is the baby Do they enjoy people 0 Fearful Distress I How much fear does a baby show I Babies high in fearful distress are usually shy o Irritable Distress I Happens when baby is not getting what they want 0 Activity Level I How active is the baby 0 Attention Span I How long can a baby pay attention to stuff Rhythmicity I Do babies sleep eat and poop on a regular schedule I How rhythmic are their bodily functions 3 Categories of Temperament 0 Easy Temperament 40 of babies 0 High positive affect o Adaptable to new experiences 0 Easy to soothe o Rhythmic 0 Low distress Difficult Temperament 10 of babies 0 Low positive affect 0 High irritable distress 0 Very active 0 Irregular eating and sleeping habits 0 Hard to soothe Slow to Warm Up Temperament 15 of babies 0 High levels of fearful distress 0 Low activity level 0 Slow to adapt to new experiences but can eventually get comfortable if given time Remaining infants share qualities of two or more categories Stability of Temperament Longitudinal research indicates that activity level irritability sociability and fearfulness stay relatively stable over time Shyness is persistent o More extreme a trait more likely to persist o More stable after age 3 I The older you get the more stable the trait O Causes of Temperament Heredity o Identical twins are more similar in temperament than fraternal twins Environmental In uences o Goodness of Fit extent to which child s temperament is compatible with demands and expectations of environment I Environment can affect temperament Erikson s Psychosocial Stages Erik Erikson 19021994 0 Stage theory used to explain how we develop our understanding of ourselves and other people Divided development into 8 stages 0 Each stage a quotcrisisquot that person must deal with I Need to find the right balance between two extremes If not successful less healthy development and harder to deal with next stage But the crises are never completely solved and can come up again in later life 0 Trust vs Mistrust birth to 10 months 0 Interactions with caregivers teach either a sense of trust are mistrust in other people the world themselves 0 Consistent responsive caregiving is key creating tryst Caregiver s Attachment to Infant Attachment emotional tie that binds us to special people with whom we seek proximity and security Attachment relationships are reciprocal formed from interaction between caregiver and child Some caregiver attachment may form before birth Infant characteristics may help attachment form Reciprocal Socialization process in which infants behaviors invite further responses from caregivers which in turn bring about further responses from the infants 0 Ex parent talking to baby parent knows to stop talking to baby because they look away 0 Responsive parents teach infants they have some control allow time to practice emotional regulation 0 Caregiver s attachment to infant can be affected by infant s temperament Development of Infant s Attachment to Caregiver 4 Phases 0 Asocial Phase birth to 6 weeks I Responsive to anything social or not 0 Phase of Indiscriminant Attachments 6 weeks to 67 months I At beginning prefer social stimuli but are not picky with whom they interact with I By 36 months some preferences for familiar people still happy to interact with strangers 0 Specific Attachment Phase 67 months to 9 months I Form first attachment to primary caregiver usually mother I Attachment facilitates exploration caregiver becomes secure basequot a safe place giving good information If no secure bond base will not explore 0 Phase of Multiple Attachments 918 months I Within weeks from other attachments to people who are often around them I Choose different attachment figures for different needs Babies go to father for play Babies go to mother for security food Attachment Related Fears Stranger Anxiety fear when approached by unfamiliar individual 0 Begins with first attachment peaks between 810 months gradually declines over 2rld year 0 Stranger less scary if I Attachment figure close by responds positively to new person then not as scary I More familiar situation less scary I Stranger is sensitive to child s cues is not weird lookingquot the stranger looks more like people the baby is used to seeing Separation Anxiety fear when separated from attachment figure 0 Starts at 68 months peaks 1418 months fades throughout preschool 0 Grade school kids and tends may have some depressionanxiety when separated for long period Quality of Attachment Assessment Strange Situationquot method used to assess strength and quality of attachment 0 Involves child parent and stranger interacting in different combinations Ainsworth I Does child used caregiver as secure base I How does child relate to stranger I How does child handle brief separations from parent I How easily is child soothed when parent returns
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